LADIES' SELF INSTRUCTOR
MILLINERY AND MANTUA MAKING,
EMBROIDERY AND APPLIQUE,
CANVAS-WORK, KNITTING, NETTING
ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS
PUBLISHED BY J. & J. L. GIHON,
NO. 98 CHESNUT STREET.
EMBROIDERY AND APPLIQUE.
Instructions in Embroidery with floss silk, three-
corded, or saddler's silk, chenille, worsteds, &c. . . 15
Sixteen Patterns for Embroidery engraved upon wood 19
Raised Embroidery 31
Stitches in Embroidery on Muslin and Lace work . , . 34
Satin Stitch "
Button Hole Stitch 35
Formation of Bars
Embroidery Feather Stitch
Double Button Hole Stitch , 36
Half Herring-bone Stitch
Straight open Hem
Veining open Hem
Eyelet Holes in Lace Work
Spots on Net 37
Tambour Stitch "
Instructions in Embroidery on Muslin 38
Instructions in Lace Work with Engravings 39
Embroidery in Gold Thread -. 45
Embroidery for Insertion 51
Maxims for Memory 53
Preparations of Frames 61
To Dress a Frame for Cross Stitch "
Do. for Cloth work 62
Do. for Tent Stitch "
Materials for working 63
Tent Stitch— Cross Stitch— Straight Cross Stitch-
Czar Stitch— Irish Stitch— Willow Stitch— Pavilion
Stitch — Josephine Stitch — Berlin Stitch — Long Plait
—Feather Stitch— Stitch a la Vandyke— Point Stitch
— Square Plait — Gobelin Stitch — Perspective Stitch
— A Star — Velvet Stitch — Serpentine Stitch — Dou-
ble Star — Crossed long Stitch — Fancy Stitch — Lace
Stitch — Princess Stitch — Hohenlinden Stitch — Cane
Pattern — Sutherland Stitch — Darmstadt Pattern —
Palace Pattern — Plaid Pattern — Diamonds
Rouleau Edging 76
Algerine Work "
To fill up Corners 77
Special Instructions for working on Canvas 78
Instructions in Grounding "
Working Figures 79
Raised Work 80
Working Berlin Patterns 81
Patterns on Canvas "
Armorial Bearings u
Mosaic Work 85
Gem or Set Patterns 86
Perforated Card "
Bead Work «
Braid Work 8?
Rug Bordering "
Wire Work 88
Articles of Luxury that may be worked on Canvas. . 89
Gothic Chairs "
Box Ottomans "
Cheval Screens 90
Urn Stands '
Borders for Table Covers '
Sofa Pillows 91
Weight Cushions '
Wire Baskets l
Pool Baskets (
Blotting Books '
Hints upon Tints 93
General Remarks 95
Royal and Noble Ladies 96
MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, &c.
Chap. I. — Explanation of Stitches 105
Mantua-Maker's Hem "
Sewing and Felling "
Double Gathering, or Puinng 107
German Hemming "
Herring-Boning .. "
Fancy Herring-Boning 109
Double Herring-Boning "
Fancy Button-Hole Stitch 110
Chain Stitch "
Chain Stitch, or Gathers u
Fancy Chain Stitch Ill
Coral Pattern , "
Fancy Bobbin Edging "
The Serpentine Stitch 112
The Angular Stitch "
The Horse-Shoe Stitch "
Chap. II. — Miscellaneous Instructions 113
Tucks l ]f
A Dress Scarf 1 16
A Plain Scarf 1 17
An Indian Scarf
Chemises 1 18
Gentlemen's Frocks 120
Lady's Flannel Waistcoat
Bustles or Tournures 12 *
Dress Aprons * 22
Apron for a Young Person 123
A Morning Apron
Chap. III.— Millinery I 25
Collars and Capes 13 °
Chap. IV. — Dress-Making - 131
Instructions in Cutting out a Dress
Lady's Silk Cloak "
Boy's Cape or Cloak 145
Dressing Table Covers "
Pincushion Covers 146
Dinner Napkins u
KNITTING, NETTING. AND CROTCHET WORK.
Explanation of the Terms used in Knitting 151
Four beautiful Patterns of Lace Edgings for Collars,
Dresses. Sec 153
A Baby r s Sock 156
Babies Socks. 1st size 157
Baby's Mufflers "
Child's Sock, to be worn with Shoes 158
Knee Caps in Lambs^-wool 159
Evening Carriage Shoes "
Plain Mittens 160
Netted Mittens 162
Lambs'-wool Muffatees "
Driving Muffatees 163
Corkscrew Muffatees u
Fringe, No. 1 164
Fringe. No. 2 "
Herringbone Purse 165
Another Purse "
A Net Purse in Points "
Corkscrew Netting for a Purse 168
Save-all Bag 170
Moss Stitch, to make a thick bag u
Double Knitting 171
Double Blanket "
A Gentleman : s Comforter. Double Knitting 172
A Comfortable Comfortable u
Double Knitted Shawl «
Do. with Colored Border 173
Pi: cushion Cover. Leaf Pattern "
Knitted Keule Holder 174
Netted Curtain 175
Netted Scarf "
Treble Diamond Netting 176
Single Diamond Netting 177
Tuft Netting "
Night Stocking "
Another Night Stocking "
To Knit a Quilt Stocking 178
Twisted Column Quilt "
Moss Stitch for a Quilt 179
Imitation Coral "
Ribbed Cephaline "
Double Netting for a Mitten "
Patterns for D'Oyleys, Basket, or Fish Napkins, and
Netted Lambs'-wool Shawl or Handkerchief 183
Netted Sofa Tidy '•'
To work the backs of Netted Mittens 184
Feather Mitts "
Cuffs, Peacock Stitch 185
Netted Cuffs 186
Gentlemen's Muffatees "
A Pence Purse, or Jug 187
Ladder Stitch Bag 188
Netted Bag 189
Striped Purse "
Purse Stitch 190
Bead Netting "
Diamond Netting 191
Border for a Table Cover 192
Bordei and Fringe 192
Night Cap :;
Lambs'-wool Sleeve 194
Baby's Lambs'- wool Cap
Brioche, or Moorish Cushion .' "
Single Crotchet Stitch 195
Double Crotchet Stitch 196
Plain Double Crotchet Stitch Purse 197
j t Purse "
s Cap 19S
Shoe and Stocking Socks 199
Another Top of Socks 200
Socks, -without Shoe and Stocking 201
Mitts with the Figure on the back of the Hand, and
Holes inside and in the Thumb 203
Piain Mitt 204
A Pair of G\oves. large Men's size "
THE LADY'S GUIDE
EMBROIDERY AND APPLIOtJE;
Snstrnttinns Ik (iJmtimihq
SILK, VELVET, MUSLIN, LACE, MERINO, &o
AND IN APPLIQUE,
WTO ififteen aSeautffiUIs EnflwbeK patterns.
The taste for embroidery is daily increasing, and this
species of work is not only ornamental but useful. In
the following pages we have given instructions in all
the most popular and beautiful modes of embroidering •
and have endeavoured to express ourselves as explicitly
The patterns which accompany those instructions,
may not only be used in embroidering with Floss silks,
worsted and chenille, but will be found equally beauti-
ful when worked on muslin with white cotton.
The art of embroidering with floss silk on satin, silk,
or other materials, is exceedingly simple; and with but
little practice, all of the patterns to be found in this book
may be worked in such a manner as to present a neat
and beautiful appearance.
To embroider with cotton upon muslin much skil
and care are required, but the work when finished is dura-
ble and washes well.
Applique is one of the most beautiful, and at the same
time one of the easiest modes of embroidering, and may
be worked with great rapidity.
Embroidery on lace requires equal skill with embroi-
dery on muslin, but the work when finished is so ex-
quisitely beautiful that it well repays the trouble of the
Here the needle plies its busy task !
The pattern grows ; the well-depicted flower
Wrought patiently into the snowy lawn,
Unfolds its bosom; buds, and leaves, and sprigs,
And curling tendrils, gracefully disposed,
Follow the nimble fingers of the fair.
A wreath, that cannot fade, of flowers that blow
With most success when all besides decay.
THE LADY'S GUIDE
(£mbrotkrg antr Applique.
EMBROIDERY WITH FLOSS SILK, THREE CORDED, OR
saddler's SILK, CHENILLE, WORSTED, ETC.
Floss silk is used to embroider on either silk,
satin, merino, or any fine material which does not
To embroider on cloth, fine flannel, or merino
that is to be washed, it is necessary to use three
corded, or saddler's silk.
Chenille is sometimes employed in canvas work,
but being one of the richest materials used in em-
broidery it shows to the greatest advantage on vel-
vet, silk, or satin.
Worsted is used principally for embroidery on
canvas ; but on fine merino, brown holland, and
even white muslin, it is equally beautiful. The
colours of German worsteds do not fade when
washed with soap.
A light and simple frame is the most convenient
s of emb
for the above mentioned species of embroidery
The frame should merely consist of four smooth
pieces of light wood, half or three quarters of a
yard in length, and quarter of an inch in thick-
ness, neatly joined together. The frame should
then be covered with ribbon or muslin wound
tightly around it. To this muslin the material de-
signed to be embroidered is to be sewed. Square
frames are preferable.
After the frame has been prepared the pattern to
be embroidered should be drawn. If the material
used is silk, or satin, or muslin, or any transparent
substance, the pattern may be fastened on the
wrong side, hung over a window pane, and traced
upon the material with a lead pencil. When vel-
vet, or cloth, or any dark coloured silk is to be em-
broidered, the pattern should be drawn on white
tissue or blotting paper, and the paper lightly
tacked upon the right side of the velvet. The em-
broidery is to be executed over the paper, and when
the work is completed the paper is carefully torn
away. Sometimes patterns are drawn on dark ma-
terials by means of chalk, but the chalk is apt to
After the pattern is drawn the work should be
sewed into the frame in such a manner as to be
perfectly smooth and even. It is not necessary
that the frame should be of the same size as the
material to be embroidered. If the stuff is wider
or longer than the frame the portion over should be
rolled up and covered with white paper. When
the article is smaller than the frame a piece 01
AND APPLIQUE. 17
muslin may be sewed to the stuff so as to make it
of the necessary size.
For worsted work a rather coarse darning needle
should be used, and for floss silk a fine one. A
large round eyed needle is necessary for chenille
and three corded silk. If the needle is too large, be-
sides being clumsy, it will make a hole in the work.
The stitch for embroidery is very easy. You
make a knot at the end of the silk, chenille, or
worsted, and bring your needle through the mate-
rial on which you intend to work, from the under
side to the upper one. Next, the needle is again
put through to the under side, following the pat-
tern, and then put back and brought to the upper
side close to where it came through before. The
same process is then repeated, care being taken
not to draw the silk too tight. The stitches should
lay slantingly and beside each other. To embroider
the stalks of flowers a stitch very similar to back
stitch should be used.
We give a number of beautiful patterns for em-
broidery in floss, chenille, &c. Amongst them
borders of vines for aprons, cloaks, blankets for in-
fants, bags, &c, and bouquets of flowers for the
corners. They have been selected with great care,
and will be found exceedingly beautiful when
worked in colours.
The way to embroider in the manner above de-
signated, may be learned without further instruc-
tions than those we have already given. The
work when once understood is accomplished with
great rapidity, and never becomes tedious.
EMBROIDERY AND APPLIQUE. 31
This kind of embroidery is extremely pretty in
fancy pieces, for working animals, birds, shells,
fruits, or flowers. It may be done with either silk
worsted, or chenille. The pattern must be traced
and the material framed as usual ; then commence
a foundation for the raised parts by working with
coarse cotton or wool layer upon layer, with long
stitches, until the outline of the design is closely
approached, paying attention at the same time to
the shape of the object. When this is finished be-
gin the embroidery over it with a long needle, and
shade in the usual manner, passing the needle
through the whole substance of the foundation,
which will the more easily be done should it be
formed of wool. Fruit and shells may be most ad-
mirably imitated by this mode of embroidery. This
kind of raised embroidery may be done on canvas ;
it may also be worked on holland and afterwards
transferred. Wool and chenille may both be used,
but it can be done with greatest perfection with
Flowers, such as roses, on a very reduced scale
for sprig work, may be beautifully and easily exe-
cuted in this description of embroidery. A small
round must first be slightly raised with cotton ;
then commence the centre of the rose with two or
three small French knots, and form the flower by
working round them in small stitches, keeping the
middle of the darkest shades ; the stitches should
partly cross each other, so as to give the appear
ance of one leaf over another. If skilfully done
the centre of the flower should have the sunken ap-
pearance which it has in nature. If worked too
large, their beauty and effect will be lost. Four
shades of silk will be found sufficient.
Applique is the laying of one material over an*
other — as cloth, for instance, where one or more
pieces of different shapes and colours, in the form of
flowers or other figures, are placed on the surface
of another piece which forms the ground, and are
afterwards secured at their edges w T ith braids or
cords. This style of work has been practised in
some instances with so much taste and ingenuity,
that it has rivalled embroidery, and for many Turk-
ish designs seems almost preferable to any other
Applique may be composed of pieces of cloth,
velvet, satin, silk, or leather, cut into the shape of
flowers, leaves, scrolls, or other designs. The pat-
tern should be drawn upon the material intended
for the applique, and a corresponding one upon
that forming the ground, which latter may also
AND APPLIQUE. 33
consist of either of the above materials. If vel-
vet, satin, or silk, be used, it will be necessary to
have a thin paper pasted at the back, before the ap-
plique is cut out, which renders them firmer, and
prevents their unraveling. These pieces are to be
carefully tacked down on the material, and the
edges worked with braid or cord, the colours of
which may be varied according to taste ; but where
flowers are represented, a braid, the colour of the
flower or leaf, is to be preferred. The leaves may
be veined with braid or cord, or with twisted silk ;
and the centres of some flowers may be worked in
French knots. Vine leaves are peculiarly adapted
to this description of work, the tendrils of which
may be formed of union cord or of chenille.
For bags and folios a very pretty kind of ap-
plique may be made, by using various coloured silks
on a ground of cachemir or merino. Velvet ap-
plique, edged with gold cord, on satin, or velvet, is
also suitable for bags, slippers, sockets, caps, pil-
lows, &c. Satin, edged with chenille, is sometimes
used ; as also morocco leather, or kid stamped with
designs in gold : when placed on satin, velvet, or
cloth, the latter should be edged with gold braid or
cord, and may be further enriched, by the margin
of the leather being cut into scollops or Vandykes,
and the gold cord twined into a circle at each point.
For table covers, borders, ottomans, and other large
pieces of work, a set pattern may be used with
good effect when embroidery can be introduced into
some of the compartments, giving it a very rich
and Persian -like appearance.
A beautiful description of applique, combined
with embroidery, was much in vogue a few years
since, particularly for handscreens, where the flow-
ers and leaves were formed of velvet, and the
stalks embroidered with gold bullion. Some of
these fleurs defantaisie were made flat, others were
raised by numerous small velvet leaves, carefully
laid one partly over the other, and tacked down
with a fine silk ; these leaves required to be accu-
rately cut with a steel or punch or very sharp
STITCHES IN EMBROIDERY ON MUSLIN AND LACE WORK
Satin Stitch. — This resembles the threads in
satin, and is much used in embroidery. You make
a knot at the end of the cotton, silk, or worsted ;
and bring it through the material on which you in-
tend to work, from the under side to the upper one.
Next, the needle is again put through to the under
side, at about half an inch distance, and is then put
back and brought to the upper side, about halfway
from the first point, the next stitch is carried to the
same distance from the second ; again the needle
is brought back, and the same process is repeated.
In working on a surface, the stitches run in paral-
el lines to each other, and are taken the length-wav
AND APPLIQUE. 35
of the figure or subject you are making. They are
also of unequal lengths, in order that the ground
may be more effectually covered. In the working
of drapery, you must be sure to take each stitch the
way the threads or grain would naturally fall.
Button-Hole Stitch. — The needle must go in
on the wrong side, and be brought out on the right,
five threads down. To make the stitch, the nee-
dle is passed through the loop, before it is tight-
ened or drawn close.
Eyelet Holes. — These are first run round ,
then a hole is cut out, or made by a piercer, which
is the preferable way ; and the needle is passed
through the aperture, under the inner thread, and
you sew round it thickly, so as to entirely conceal
it. You may make oval eyelet holes in the same
manner, making the opening oval, instead of round.
Formation of Bars. — You take four threads of
the muslin on the needle, and sew three times over
them, passing the needle through the same opening
each time, and drawing the four threads as close as
possible. Each succeeding four threads are taken
up the same way ; and thus the required number of
bars can be easily formed. The thread in this
stitch passes from bar to bar, on the right hand.
Embroidery Feather Stitch. — Leaves are of-
ten worked in this stitch, which is only an elonga-
ted button-hole stitch. Its appearance, on a leaf, is
Glover's Stitch. — This is the same as button-
hole stitch, only each stitch is taken a little higher
up than the one which preceded it.
Double Button-Hole Stitch. — This is two
stitches together, then the space for two left unoc-
cupied, then the two button-hole stitches repeated,
and so on alternately.
Half Herrlng-Bone Stitch. — This is worked
the cross way of the muslin ; four threads are
taken on the mesh at once.
Lines. — These are formed by drawing together
six threads of the muslin, and sewing over them
with fine thread, as close as possible.
Straight Open Hem. — This is done by drawing
out three or four threads, the selvage-way of the
muslin, and working over the cross threads from
side to side, in a kind of zigzag direction.
Yeintng Open Hem. — This is worked in a curve,
or other pattern, in which the threads cannot be
drawn out. The hem is made by sewing over two
threads, taken the angular way of the muslin, and
then pursuing the same method with two threads
taken the contrary way, and uniting them together
as in a straight open hem. The appearance is the
same, but the pattern is a curve or other shape.
Chain Stitch. — This is often employed in lace
work. Make a knot at the end of the cotton, and
draw it through to the right side. While you put
in the needle, let the end hang loose, and bring it
"out below, so as to incline a little to the left hand ;
pass the needle over the cotton, as you draw it out,
and this will form a loop ; each succeeding one is
done in the same manner.
Pearling. — This is a kind of lace edging, not
AND APPLIQUE. 37
worked with needles, but often used as a finish to
embroidery on muslin. It is very pretty, and is sold
ready for use.
Darning. — This is, when employed in lace-work,
done as follows. It is worked as common darning,
but with fine cotton, which is doubled ; and, in
this stitch, the inner edge of flowers is sometimes
worked, the centre being executed in half- herring-
bone stitch. It looks well ; but rows of chain
stitch, are, in our opinion, preferable.
Interior Stitch. — So called, because often em-
ployed to fill up the centres of leaves, in lace work.
The stitch is formed by taking two threads the
breadth-way of the leaf, and sewing over them ;
then leaving a row of one thread, and sewing over
two threads, as before.
Eyelet Holes in Lace Work. — These are not
difficult to execute, and when well arranged, have
a beautiful appearance. One mesh of the net is
left for the centre, and you work round it in but-
ton-hole stitch. A great variety of devices may be
formed, by a tasteful and judicious disposition of
these eyelet holes.
Spots on Net. — These, though simple, form an
elegant variety in lace work. To make each spot,
the middle is to be passed backwards and forwards,
through one hole in the net, and alternately under
and over two of the threads of which that hole is
formed. These spots must be placed in clusters,
but an open mesh must be left between each.
Tambour Stitch. — This has a close resemblance
to chain stitch. The needle, which has a small
hook at the end, and is fixed in a handle of ivory,
is put through the material stretched in the frame,
on the upper side, and the cotton being held under-
neath, in the left hand, is put upon the hook and
drawn through to the right or upper side, where it
forms a loop. Through this loop the needle is
again passed, and also thiough the material, a few
threads from the place it passed through before.
The cotton is again drawn through, and thus a suc-
cession of loops is formed. The pattern is worked
entirely in these loops or stitches.
These are the stitches most commonly employed,
and therefore the most necessary to be known. We
have done all in our power to so explain them, as
to enable our readers to practise them with facility.
EMBROIDERY ON MUSLIN.
These species of embroidery are equally beautiful,
but somewhat more tedious than embroidery with
flosses, chenille, &c, on silk, satin, velvet, or
other materials. A degree of skill which can only
be acquired by practice, is necessary to those who
would excel in this branch of the art. The w r ork
must, of course, be done by pattern, and very beau-
tiful ones may be purchased at a moderate cost.
AND APPLIQUE. 39
The material generally employed in working on
muslin is cotton, of which there are two kinds most
in request : Indian or Trafalgar, and English glaz-
ed cotton. This latter can only be employed on
work executed on a thin fabric.
The pattern is placed against a window and
drawn with a black lead pencil on the muslin. To
secure accuracy the muslin should be tacked down
to the pattern before the tracing is commenced.
The outlines of the pattern are then run around
with fine cotton, directly over the pencil marks.
Then commence working in the usual embroidery
stitch, taking care that the stitches do not lay over
each other, but side by side, so as to give the work
a smooth and even appearance. You must also
press the work down a little with your finger, which
will improve the evenness of its appearance, and
tend to preserve it in its proper shape. Work the
stalks over rather thick. A frame is not necessary.
INSTRUCTIONS IN LACE WORK.
In commencing this delicate and beautiful work,
you must place over the net a piece of French cam-
bric, proportionate in size to the subject, or de-
rice, you are intending to work ; and under both
these the paper pattern is to be placed, and secured
by a tack at the edge, in its propei position. It is
essential to remark, that though the design, as a
whole, may be large, yet each part should be small j
the introduction of large leaves, sprigs, or flowers,
would greatly detract from that beauty of appear-
ance, which is so essential to be preserved. Clus-
ters of small flowers, or leaves, are proper orna-
ments in this elaborately-wrought fabric. Having
placed the materials and pattern, as directed, the
outlines of the design are to be run round with cot-
ton. This sewing must be done twice, and the run-
ning thread be sewn over with fine cotton; the
sewing to be moderately thick ; this will give the
extreme edge of each leaf or flower, a raised ap-
pearance ; a point in this work, of most essential
importance. The cambric is then, with a pair of
small and sharp scissors, to be cut off, as near to
the raised edge as possible.
The annexed engraving shews the appearance
the work will have when finished.
This pattern is proper for lace, of
a moderate breadth ; of course, the
designs can be varied, and we strong-
ly advise all who have a taste for
W56>£A5tf?&! drawing, to improve it by designing
new and elegant combinations ; they will thus be
perfecting themselves in the art of design, while
they are adding additional attractions to the ele-
gant ornaments of attire.
Another method of executing designs on net, for
lace work, is by drawing out a pattern in leaves
AND APPLIQUE. 41
and flowers, and so working them as to appear in
the manner represented in the en-
graving. This is done by sewing
round the edges of each leaf, &c., in
glazed cotton, and on the inside
of each, darning with fine cotton,
doubled, leaving the centre of the flower vacant,
which is afterwards to be worked in herring-bone
stitch, extending from one side to the other. Some-
times, instead of darning, the leaves are worked in
chain stitch, which is done in rows to the extremity
of the leaf, &c, and the cotton is turned back, and
the process is repeated, until the whole space is
occupied. In working in chain stitch, it will -be
necessary to hold the cotton down with the left
hand, while the loop is formed. This direction
will be found of essential service if strictly attend-
The various patterns are so numerous, that it is
next to impossible to enumerate them. One beau-
tiful variety is formed by filling up the centres of
flowers with insertion stitch ; for the mode of doing
which, the reader is referred to the chapter on stitch-
es. Leaves and flowers thus filled up have a re-
markably neat appearance.
Sometimes the spaces in the net are filled up
with clusters of spots, which are made b'y passing
the needle in a backward and forward direction,
through one mesh of the net, and over two threads
of that mesh, alternately. These clusters look
handsome, when executed with due care. It is al-
so common to form sprigs or branches, by eyelet
holes, formed according to the direction given in the
first chapter. These may be either placed along
a stem, or disposed in clusters of three. Either
way they form a variety which produces a pleasing
This kind of embroidery is often employed in the
preparation of veils, for bridal and other occasions,
and for this purpose it is admirably adapted. In
working a veil, you first obtain a piece of net, of
the proper quality and dimensions. You then
work a small running pattern of the most attractive
and elegant combination of sprigs and flowers you
can procure, or invent, quite close to the edge ; this
is to go all round the veil. Within this border, at
the lower part, a rich broad piece of work, in large
clusters of small leaves, &c, is to be executed, and
the veil is to be finished with pearling, set on the
edges, which gives a beautiful finish to the whole.
It is not difficult to execute these veils, and when
finished with proper care and attention, it is not
easy to distinguish them from the admired fabric
they are intended to represent.
This is the kind of lace work generally practis-
ed ; but as some ladies may be desirous of making
what is called bobbin lace, we shall briefly describe
the process. You procure a pillow or cushion with
bobbins, and a small table, having in the centre a
square hole. In this hole revolves in a horizontal
manner, a wooden cylinder, which is wrapped
round with linen several times, and stuffed with
wool. On this pillow the pattern is fixed, by which
the lace is to be worked. The pattern consists of a
AND APPLIQUE 43
piece of parchment, having the outline of the de-
sign drawn upon it, and the apertures, or meshes
of the lace, are indicated by small holes pricked in-
to the parchment. The drawing of the pattern is
so managed that, when it is put round the pillow,
and the ends united, it runs on in an uninterrupted
continuity. The number of bobbins required, are
regulated by the pattern of the lace, and the num-
ber of threads on the bobbins on which they are
wound ; and each is furnished with a small handle,
by which the threads are to be twisted, and in oth-
er ways interwoven in the work. On each bobbin
the thread is held by a small collar of bone, in the
side of which a slit is made, so as to open slightly.
When tins collar is subjected to a little pressure it
holds the thread on the bobbin, but not so as to
prevent its motions, the pressure of the collar be-
ing elastic. A knot is made at the end, and thus
all the threads are united at the commencement ;
and the lace is formed by causing them to cross each
other, twisting two or three of them together, and
in various other ways confining them. This por-
tion of the work is very intricate, and cannot be
learnt by any mere description ; but it is easy
enough to execute, when a few lessons have been
given by a competent and practical teacher.
In order to form the meshes of the net, the wor-
ker must be furnished with a sufficient number of
brass pins, which she places on the pillow in a row,
corresponding with the holes on the parchment.
Round these pins the threads are passed, or en-
twined, by throwing the bobbins from side to side,
and so twisting the threads as to form the meshes.
When one row is thus completed, another row oi
pins is stuck in the cushion, close by the meshes
previously formed. Another row is then made ;
the first pins are removed, and stuck in as before ;
and thus the process continues until the required
length is obtained. As the work proceeds, the pil-
low revolves on its centre, and as the lace becomes
finished, it deposits itself in a drawer in the table,
prepared to receive it. As the making of the net
proceeds, the flowers, &c, are interwoven into it,
which is effected by a minute crossing of the fine
threads of which it is composed, and an intermix-
ture of others of a stronger texture, which form the
outline ; and the whole of the design is executed
by means of the pins which are placed in their
proper situations, and act as guides to the intertwin-
ing of the threads. Two or three lessons from a
practical worker, combined with the directions here
given, will enable any lady to work this kind of
lace in any pattern she chooses.
One other kind of lace work demands our atten-
tion before we dismiss this portion of our subject.
Book muslin is sometimes worked into an imita-
tion of lace, by placing it under net, and then lay-
ing both over a paper pattern, the same as when
working with French cambric. You then run round
the outline of every part of the design ; and the
running thread may be either sewn over, or work-
ed over in button-hole stitch. In most cases the
latter method is preferable. You are then to cut
off the external edge of the muslin, and your work
AND APPLIQUE. 45
will present a truly handsome appearance. The
remarks, as to the smallness of each portion of the
design, do not apply here, as this is not intended
to represent Brnssels point lace. You may work
each part, as well as the complete design, as large
as your judgment tells you is compatible with an el-
egant and simple neatness.
It may be necessary to observe, that the lady
who is intending to engage in working a pattern
in lace, will do well to consider before she finally
adopts her design. Let her examine as many de-
vices as she may have an opportunity of doing ;
and use her best judgment in so blending separate
parts, as to have a connected and harmonious
EMBROIDERY IN GOLD THREAD.
This kind of embroidery is usually employed m
large and bold designs, as it is never used, except
in cases where much display and extreme brillian-
cy are required. The materials made use of as
foundations for these costly displays of needle work
are various, according to the taste of the wearer, or
the occasion on which they are employed. Crape,
India muslin, or some kind of silk, are generally
employed, as the best calculated to give the desired
effect, and to exhibit the beautiful devices to the
best possible advantage. The gold thread should
be of a fine and uniform texture, and little or no
difficulty will be found in working it. When it is
properly made, it is almost as flexible as common
The stitch in which gold thread embroidery is
worked is (with occasional exceptions) satin stitch,
and, of course, you work by a pattern previously
prepared. This must be laid under the material
used as a foundation, and which is generally suffi-
ciently transparent to allow it to be seen through
it, and the outline of the subject intended to be
worked, is sewn on in white thread. This done,
you commence working in gold thread, or with sil->
ver, but this latter is not desirable, as it soon gets
black and tarnished. Gold thread is much superi-
or, both in its appearance and durability. In some
cases it is proper to omit the running thread ; as
for example, in working a slender stalk to a flower;
in this case, gold thread should be run in and then
sewn over slightly with another thread of gold ;
this will give it a spiral appearance, which looks
In working you can introduce a great variety in-
to the pattern, by the insertion of short pieces of
bullion, or fine gold twist. Two or three of these
may be made to come out of the cup of a flower,
and in various other ways. In order to fasten them
on properly, you pass the stitch lengthway of the
bullion, through the twist, which causes it to lie
flat on the foundation. Stars of every conceivable
AND APPLIQUE. 47
form may be thus made, and their brilliant beauty
cannot be described ; they must be seen to be pro-
perly appreciated. The centres of flowers may be,
and often are, formed of bullion ; but in that case
the stitch does not pass through the twist its full
length, but is shorter, so that the middle of the bul-
lion is depressed, and the extremities elevated ; or
the stitch may be passed through both ends of the
piece of bullion, and being drawn rather tight, a
slight prominence, or expansion, will be given to
the middle ; both these methods produce a beauti-
This kind of ornamental embroidery is especially
well adapted for the lower parts of dresses, and
robes of state. It is not necessary that the whole
of the work should be wrought in gold thread ; silk,
of a colour that will blend well with it, is often in-
troduced, and produces the most beautiful varieties.
Only silk of one colour should be introduced into
this kind of work ; more would destroy the harmo-
ny of contrast, which must by all means be pre-
served. As an example, we may mention that silk
of a bright green harmonizes well with the gold ;
a green branch, or sprigs, mingled with flowers
formed of gold thread and bullion is, perhaps, one
of the most chaste and tasteful combinations of silk
and gold, that can be presented to the eye.
We have said that only silk of one colour should
be introduced in combination with gold thread.
There is, however, one exception to this rule. In
working a crest, or coat of arms, the heraldric ar-
rangement of metals and colours must be adhered to
with the most scrupulous fidelity. Here you must
have silk of as many hues as are to be found in the
arms, when properly emblazoned ; and great care
must be taken in working devices in imitation of
arms, but which have not been arranged by the
Herald's College, never to place a metal upon a
metal, or a colour upon a colour. To be guilty of
such a mistake, would be to display an entire igno-
rance of the laws which regulate heraldric devices.
Tulle is occasionally employed as a material in
which to work clusters of flowers, or sprigs in gold
and silver thread. This fabric, when thus worked,
forms a rich and beautiful embroidery. The devi-
ces are worked by running round the outlines of
each leaf, or flower, with gold thread, darning the
centre of the exterior leaves, or flowers, or working
them in chain stitch, and filling them up in the mid-
dle with half herring-bone stitch, in the same man-
ner as a preceding pattern is directed to be worked.
Devices in satin stitch can be embroidered on this
material ; and it is also employed by some ladies,
as the foundation for tambour work, and is found
to answer exceedingly well.
In this brilliant and costly production of female
skill and industry, spangles are often employed
with the prettiest effect. When introduced, great
care should be taken to secure them properly, and
at the same time to conceal the thread by which
they are fastened to the material. This is no easy
task ; but by attending to the following directions
it may be done effectually. The thread, by means
of which they are to be fastened, is to be brought
Taffetas— Application of Passementeries with Fringe formed into groups.
AND APPLIQUE. 49
from the under side and passed through the small
hole in the centre of the spangle ; the needle is
next to be passed through a very small piece of bul-
lion, and then put through the hole back again
Thus the unsightly appearance of a thread across
the face of the spangle is avoided, and it is both
improved in appearance, and prevented from be-
coming disengaged from the device it was intended
Though not immediately connected with this de-
partment of needle work, perhaps a passing notice
of the kind of embroidering called print work, may
not be unacceptable. The material on which this
kind of work is done is white silk, or satin, which
is first stretched in a frame, and then has the de-
signs drawn upon it. It is used principally, though
not exclusively, for small subjects, and the stitches
employed are of the utmost minuteness. You first
sketch the intended device with pencil, and then
work it in black silk ; or in some cases you can em-
ploy silk of various shades, but not colours ; a lead,
or pale slate colour, is as proper as a jet black. You
must work with a very fine needle, and you can im-
itate a dotted engraving in this kind of needlework,
so as almost to defy detection. The stitch, is that
called marking stitch, and is set as thick as may
be, without bringing one over another. In work-
ing an imitation of an engraving, you begin on the
darkest shades, which are done with black silk, and
thence you gradually proceed to the lightest tints,
with silk of the most appropriate and best harmon-
izing shades, blending them into each other with
the nicest care. To accomplish this, in those parts
where it is necessary to introduce the lighter por-
tions, you set the stitches wide apart, and fill up
the intervals by putting in the lightest tint required.
You must on all occasions, have the engravings be-
fore you, as memory is, in reference to lights and
shades, only a treacherous guide. Line engravings
may be imitated in the same way, but the stitches
must be longer, and more widely separated from
We have thus endeavoured to afford the fullest
instructions which our limits would permit, in re-
ference to the practical performance of one of the
most delightful employments that can engage the
attention of a leisure hour. We have sought to
impart such an acquaintance with general princi-
ples as is, in our opinion, essential to a successful
prosecution of these delicate and truly feminine
pursuits , and we have at the same time, gone so
minutely into details, as may, with a few excep-
tions, enable any young lady who feels sufficient
interest in the subject, as to give it a due share of
attention, to become her own instructress, and thus
to secure an accomplishment, she might not oth-
erwise be able to possess. In all that the young
needle woman takes in hand, let the attainment of
r.xe^Iteice be her first and constant aim.
AND APPLIQUE. 51
EMBROIDERY FOR INSERTION.
Embroidery is often done upon muslin in nar-
row stripes, for insertion work, and looks extreme-
ly pretty. Almost any device, but chiefly foliage
and flowers, and sometimes fruit, are proper for this
kind of work, and any or all of- the various stitch-
es may be introduced with the happiest effect. It
is unnecessary to give examples, as they would on-
ly tend to confuse and mislead. Every lady must
use her own judgment in these cases, and be guided
in l?er choice by the use to which the insertion work
is td be applied. In all patterns for this kind of
embroidery, there must be a hem stitch on each
side cf the embroidery, the manner of forming
which, is fully explained \ in the following descrip-
tion *. Yl . £
It is cT^ne either in a straight line, or in a curve.
For the finst kind you draw out threads to the
breadth of a narrow hem, at a little distance from
the row of insertion work previously executed.
The number of threads thus drawn out should not
exceed four x which are to be taken up on the nee-
dle, commencing on one side, and these are to be
sewn over three times with very fine cotton. The
threads are taken and sewn over singly, and when
the thread has reached the opposite side, you take
up four more of the cross threads and sew them over
twice, thus uniting the eight together at the side op-
posite to that one on which you commenced. Then
sew the last four, three times over, as in the first
stitch, and the thread will here again be found at
the side on which you begin. You proceed in this
manner to the end, and the open hem when thus
worked, forms a kind of undulating wave, that
looks elegant and appropriate.
Sometimes it is found more suitable to work the
open hem in curves. In this case it is called vein-
ing, and is thus performed. You cannot draw the
threads out as in straight open hem, you therefore
commence on the angular, or bias way, and then
on the contrary way, taking up two threads in the
same manner, and uniting them together at one
side, in the same way as in straight open hem.
You sew over the two threads you took last, twice,
and then passing over to the other side, repeat the
operation as before. Straight open hem is often
used with a pretty effect, in the borders of cambric
handkerchiefs ; they should be previously hemmed
with a moderately deep hem. Some persons work
within the hem a border of small scollops, and in
sert a small embroidered leaf or flower in the cen-
tre of each. Indeed, the varieties of this charming
work, and the purposes to which they can be ap
plied, are almost beyond calculation.
AND APPLIQUE. 53
MAXIMS FOR MEMORY.
1. One of the principal advantages of regular
employment, is the value which it is the means of
affixing to a commodity, held by but too many in
disesteem ; thus it is that Time becomes a cher-
ished possession, and we are as opposed to its be-
ing wasted, as though it were among our tangible
goods. In truth it represents these latter, which
only exist through a proper disposition of the mo-
ments and hours at our command. In lieu of giv-
ing to sleep and idleness more than its allotted por-
tion, we rise betimes ; and, in the paths of cheerful
industry, avoid those stingings of self-reproach which
attend but too certainly on the sluggard. Thus is
laid the foundation of desirable habits, which for the
most part continue throughout life. Now in Fan-
cy Needlework the light of day, and particularly
the clear bright light of morning, is especially im-
portant ; for both the accuracy of linear execution,
and the proper choice of colour, can only be achiev-
ed under such circumstances. We should indeed
strongly advise our fair readers sedulously to avoid
candle-light, not only with reference to the accura-
cy of their work, but with a view also to the " good
keeping" of that delicate organ, the eye.
2. But not only is Time precious — it should also
be divided and subdivided, so that each portion of
the day may have its appointed task. A certair
period should be devoted to (for instance") Rug
work, another to Embroidery, &c.-; and then there
should be intervals of relaxation or exercise. The
latter is a very important consideration, for so fas-
cinating is this accomplishment, that all is frequent-
ly forgotten during the progress of some favourite
subject; besides, the work will be all the better
done for this temporary invasion upon occupations
strictly sedentary, since new ideas and new ener-
gies will be the result.
3. In many departments of Fancy Needlework,
great and unceasing care is requisite, in order to
avoid faults which cannot afterwards be repaired.
In cloth-work, for instance, be careful not to split
the threads of the canvass.
4. During the progress of your work, it is desi-
rable thai you keep that portion still untouched,
covered with tissue paper, or it will otherwise have
a soiled appearance. There is nothing which more
detracts from the beauty of the fabric than inatten-
tion to this rule.
5. Cut your wools into certain lengths, and put
them into elongated papers, or you may wind them
on a reel : although I do not recommend this latter
plan, for in my own experience I have always found
the winding deteriorates the texture. Eachpapei
should be labelled with its peculiar shade, or it ma}
6. A knowledge of Drawing and Painting is oi
great advantage, by its immediate bearing on the
aim of this Art : although many persons who have
AND APPLIQUE. 55
scarcely any acquaintance with either, are extreme-
ly clever with their needle. But in this case the
exception proves. the rule.
7. Plaid patterns may be worked from plaid rib-
bons ; and in so doing the choice of elegant mate-
riel will be as attainable as it is multifarious.
8. The repositories at which coloured patterns
may be obtained are very numerous. It was in
1805 that a publisher in Berlin put forth the first
Coloured Design on ruled paper. Madame Wit-
tich followed in the same path in 1810 ; and now
the number of persons engaged in this business is
unaccountable. No fewer than 22,000 Designs
have been published up to the present day. Eng-
land is probably by far the largest consumer ; and the
number of hands employed in colouring only is sup-
i/osed to amount to 2,500. The Yarn, though dyed
in Berlin, is manufactured at Gotha. Many have
declared that the yarns manufactured in this coun-
try are quite equal, if not superior, to those of Go-
tha ; but then the art of dyeing them is by no means
equally understood by us. This may appear as-
tounding to those who are aware of the great pro-
gress made by us in manufactures generally, and
especially in the application of Chemistry to the
improvement generally of our Dyes.
9. When Beads are introduced, they should not
be too numerous, or they will give an appearance
of heaviness to the work.
10. In using Floss Silk, it should be cut in short
lengths, or it is apt to get round.
11 The ladies in Germany are particular to buy
all their wools at the same time, so as to ensure the
prevalence of the same shades. There are as ma-
ny as one thousand different shades. Ladies of
high rank in that country employ their leisure in
executing Needlework for the shops.
12. The improvement of Design in the Patterns
and in the juxtaposition of their Colours, is a great
desideratum. At present, Arabesques, partaking of
the character of Crude Mosaics, are but too com-
mon, and are chiefly remarkable for bright but in-
harmonious colour and bad drawing. We counsel
our fair friends to use all their skill and taste to
bring about a reform in these fundamental depart-
ments, which will materially tend to elevate Fancy
Needlework to a close alliance with the higher
branches of Art.
INSTRUCTIONS IN ALL VARIETIES
SSTftl) eTtocntg^ISfflljt ISnflcabetJ Specimen.*.
"Come hither, come hither, thou forester bold,
Come hither. Sir Maurice and see
Where four fair maidens, in cloth of gold,
Embroider thy victory."
Embroidering on Canvas, or Tapestry Work, has been
the favourite employment of Queens and nobie ladies
for ages. Among the Medes and Babylonians the dra-
peries of apartments were carried to the greatest perfec-
tion. Their palace hangings, carpets and cushions, were
wrought with gold, silver, pearls, and other costly ma-
The use of Berlin patterns was first introduced in the
year 1S00, and they are at this day more highly esteem-
ed than ever. The force and delicacy of oil paintings
may be very nearly approached by a neat execution of
All the principal stitches used in embroidering on can-
vas have been explained and illustrated by engravings,
in the following pages. After the stitches are once
comprehended, the work is exceedingly simple.
The work from which the present is chiefly com-
piled, is dedicated to her Majesty Queen Victoria, and
has run through a large number of editions.
The volume to which we now call the attention of
our American ladies contains a greater number of pat-
terns than the English work, and more minute instruc-
tions concerning the best modes of arranging frames,
grounding, and choosing patterns, &c. A number of
beautiful articles have also been mentioned that may
be worked for presents, or to adorn the boudoirs of
PREPARATION OF FRAMES.
This is a subject which must be carefully attend-
ed to, or much unnecessary trouble will be incurred
TO DRESS A FRAME FOR CROSS STITCH.
The canvas must be hemmed neatly round : then
count your threads, and place the centre one exact-
ly in the middle of the frame. The canvas must
be drawn as tight as the screws or pegs will per-
mit, and if too long, should be wrapped round the
poles with tissue paper, to keep it from dust, and
the friction of the arms, as that is essential to the
beauty of the work. It must in all cases be rolled
under, or it will occasion much trouble in the work-
ing. When placed quite even in the frame, secure,
G2 THE LADY'S
by fine twine passed over the stretchers and through
the canvas, very closely ; both sides must be tight-
ened gradually, or it will draw to one side, and the
work will be spoiled.
TO DRESS A FRAME FOR CLOTH WORK
Stretch your cloth in the frame as tight as possi-
ble, the right side uppermost.
The canvas on which you intend to work must
be of a size to correspond with the pattern, and must
be placed exactly in the centre of the cloth to
which it is to be secured, as smooth as possible.
When the work is finished, the canvas must be cut,
and the threads drawn out, first one way and then
the other. It is necessary to be especially careful,
in working, not to split the threads, as that would
prevent them drawing, and would spoil the appear-
ance of the work. In all cases, it is advisable to
place the cloth so as that the nap may go down-
ward. In working bouquets of flowers, this rule is
indispensable. The patterns for cloth work should
be light and open. It looks well for sofas, arm
chairs, &c, but is by no means so durable as work
done with wool entirely on canvas.
TO DRESS A FRAME FOR TENT STITCH.
Prepare the frame and canvas as for cross stitch,
only not quite even, but inclining the contrary way
to the slant of your stitch. This is necessary, as tent
stitch always twists a little ; but when taken out of
the frame, the work will appear tolerably straight
WORK-BOX COMPANION 63
Should it, after all, be crooked, it should be nailed
at the edges to a square board, and the work may
then be pulled even by the threads, so as to become
perfectly straight. The back of the work should
then be slightly brushed over with isinglass water,
taking care not to let the liquid come through to
the right side. A sheet of paper must be placed be-
tween the work and' the board, and when nearly
dry, another must be laid upon it, and the whole
ironed with a warm iron, not too hot, or the bril-
liancy of the work will be destroyed.
Some persons use flour instead of isinglass, but it
is highly improper, and should never be resorted
MATERIALS FOR WORKING.
Canvas (coarse) eighteen threads to the inch.
Work in cross stitch with double wool. This is
proper for a foot-stool, sofa-pillow, &c.
Canvas (very coarse) ten threads to the inch.
Work in cross stitch, over one thread, with single
wool. If used for grounding, work in two threads.
This will accelerate the work, and look equally
Silk leaves. — If no grounding is required, work in
64 THE LADY'S
tent stitch. The pattern should be large in pro-
portion to the fineness of the material. The
finer the canvas, the larger the pattern.
Colours. — An attention to shades is of the ut-
most consequence, as on this, in an eminent de-
gree, depends the perfection of the work. The
shades must be so chosen, as to blend into each
other, or all harmony of colouring will be de-
stroyed. The colours must be more distinct in
tent stitch than in cross stitch, or rather more
strongly contrasted, especially in the dark shades
of flowers ; without attention to this point, a good
resemblance of nature cannot be obtained.
Wool (English and German), white, black and
various colours. Two, three, four, five, or six
shades of each colour, as the nature of your work
may require. The same observation applies to
silk and cotton, in cases where those materials
Split wool for mosaic work.
Silk. Split Silk. Floss. Half Twist. Deck-
ers. China silk. Fine purse Silk.
Cotton of various kinds.
Gold Twist. Silver Thread. Chenille.
Beads. Thick and transparent Gold. Bright
and burnt steel. Silver, plated, &c.
Canvas, called Bolting, for Bead work.
1. TENT STITCH.
This is accomplished over one thread the
cross way, and should be done in a frame.
In grounding, perform the work the bias
way of the canvas, and work from left to
The tyro cannot be too sedulous in the due
acquirement of this elemental stitch.
2. CROSS STITCH.
Let the wool be put across two threads,
and the needle down two, working the
cross way, and finishing as the work pro-
5. STRAIGHT CROSS STITCH.
This stitch is the same as Cross Stitch,
but is worked the straight way of the
canvass ; and although on coarse can-
vas, has a very pleasing and finished
appearance. We have before us a flower-piece,
fresh as from the pencil of Carl du Jardin, the
grounding of which is done in this stitch, and the
flowers have an admirable effect.
It is but too much the error of amateurs in Nee-
dlework to suppose that flowers cannot be repre-
sented in colours too distinctly bright ; but this is
scarcely to be wondered at, when the examples of
artists in oil and water-colours of the present day
are so pernicious on this very score.
4. WINDSOR STITCH.
Pass the wool over
six threads straight,
and six threads down,
which will present a
square when the sec-
ond row is completed.
The pattern A-la-Van-
dyck may be rendered
very beautiful by a ju-
dicious choice of colours, and of gold and steel
beads, forming central points in particular shades.
In making bags, a tasteful border should be added.
It is desirable that, in contrasting colours, every
third interposed should partake of the hues of those
on either side.
5. PAVILION STITCH.
Four threads having been taken
j#i straight down, bring the needle down
one thread ; after that take two threads,
then four, as before, and finish the row.
Commence the second row with a
stitch in two threads, then take four,
and so proceed. Gold beads tasteful-
ly introduced have a very pretty effec f
6. JOSEPHINE STITCH.
This is a very pretty stitch for bags
with gold or silver braid, and is executed
in stripes from the bottom to the top
Take six threads straight, and proceed
to the end of the row ; after which take
three lengths of braid, and work one of them in
Cross Stitch, diamond fashion.
7. BERLIN STITCH.
Work this stitch in- a scollop,
taking six threads straight
down. Much of the beauty of
it depends upon the contrast of
colour (having an eye to har-
mony) in the threads. The
effect should be ascertained be-
fore beginning to work.
8. CZAR STITCH.
We have heard this called Economic
Stitch. It is worked over from six or
eight threads in depth, and two in width,
crossed from right to left. Gold thread
should be interposed between each row
i if in - >■
==: n rimf
9. IRISH STITCH.
Four, six, or eight threads are to be
taken straight, two threads being left
between. The second row is to be be-
2^un four threads up, between the two
threads left on the former row, and ; n
working the third row, take care that
the stitches meet the first row. This
is a valuable stitch, easily worked in-
to a variety of pretty forms.
in the same
what colours are chosen.
10. WILLOW STITCH.
This is sometimes called Basket
Stitch, and is effected by placing
the needle straight down six threads.
As you finish the sixth stitch, take
out the needle at the third thread,
and cross it over the centre. On
doing other six stitches, cross over
manner, and so on. It is indifferent
11. LONG PLAIT.
Begin by taking twelve threads straight ;
work six stitches, slip the needle down-
ward half-way, and then begin another
stitch. If striped with gold or silver thread
at intervals, where the stitches meet, the
effect is very striking.
12. FEATHER STITCH.
This is done over twelve threads, from
left to right, in the same way as Tent
Stitch, the next row being turned so as
to represent the semblance of a feather.
The centre is usually stitched up with
gold, silver or silk thread.
A LA VANDYCK.
Twelve threads are taken
across, and reduced two
threads each stitch, till
the width agrees with the
14. POINT STITCH.
Ten threads must be taken straight
down the canvas, and as many in the
next stitch opposite.
15. SQUARE PLAIT.
The length-way of the canvas
take ten threads deep, and work
ten stitches straight ; then work
ten threads the width of the can-
vas, and so continue. For the full
display of this stitch, bright colours
should be placed in opposition.
THE LADY S
16. GOBELIN STITCH.
Take two threads in height, and one in
Many beautiful specimens may be seen at
the Annual Exhibition of the Aubusson
This stitch formed over Card or Straw placed be-
tween two threads of the canvas, has a very pretty
effect. Shades of the same colour in Vandykes,
whether dark blue and gold, scarlet and green,
azure and lilac, &c. have a charming effect in bags
of different colours.
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17. PERSPECTIVE STITCH.
Twelve threads having been
counted the cross way, take the
needle out with two threads at
the top ; proceeding after this
fashion to take seven stitches,
finishing with any appropriate
colour, and filling in witk silk.
Six threads must be taken four oppo-
site ways, and after that four stitches
between a bead in the centre of each.
The stars should be judiciously varied
in colour, and worked in silk canvas.
19. VELVET STITCH.
Three rows are to he worked downwards of Cross
.Stitch, leaving four threads. Three rows more 01
Cross Stitch are then to be executed ; and so pro-
ceed till it is finished. Over the space that is left,
work (over strips of whalebone) with four threads,
Economic Stitch double crossed at each end, and
cut down the centre with a pen-knife. This has
the effect of velvet in lines, and is very elegant.
20. SERPENTINE STITCH.
This is sometimes called Spiral Stitch, and is ex-
ecuted by taking five threads straight ; after that,
five stitches on two ascending threads ; then one
stitch on nine ascending threads, and five as before.
In descending, take five stitches on two threads, one
stitch on nine, five on two ascending, five descend-
ing, and so on to the end. The fifth stitch is the
top stitch of each row.
21. DOUBLE STAR.
Stitch on two threads crossway,
twenty-two stitches square, on silk
canvas. Taking eight threads
each way, commence the star
in the centre. Bright colours are
desirable, with a brilliant centre
of silver, gold, or steel beads.
22. CROSSED LONG STITCH.
Ten or twelve threads deep must
be taken, and worked to the re-
quired width of canvas. Continue
the next row in the same manner,
and with gold or silver thread,
cross every eight or twelve stitches
throughout the pattern.
The introduction of gold and silver thread has a
surprisingly beautiful effect, provided the substrata
of colour are such as to give it relief. Gold allies
well with green ; silver with blue or purple. The
more vivid tints may be approximated by the shades
of colour introduced between them.
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23. FANCY STITCH.
Over any number of threads take
five stitches, reverse the canvas,
and work other five to meet them ;
which leaving a space of canvas
of diamond form, rich coloured
silk can be tastefully filled in.
24. LACE STITCH.
This is one of the most beautiful in the whole
range of stitches, and is commonly executed in
black Chantilly silk, both in cross stitch and in
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straight stitch, so as to anive at a
sort of dice pattern, and the edge
is finished in wool in cross stitch.
A resemblance to a pearl edge is
given by taking two threads straight
beyond the pattern.
25. PRINCESS STITCH.
You must begin with two threads,
and increase two each way till
fourteen threads are covered ; af-
ter which commence again on two
threads, and increase to fourteen
as before. Variety of colour should be alternated.
26. HOHENLINDEN STITCH.
Begin by taking eight threads down the canvas
and increase the stitches one thread each way up
to twelve threads \ after which decrease to eight.
Proceed thus : the second row being commenced
with twelve threads which meet the long stitch in
the first row. After this, the diamond space which
remains must be worked in gold-coloured silk, eith-
er as plate, or in an opposite direction to the first
To a German Princess, as remarkable for hei
beauty as for those amiable traits which captivated
one of the bravest and most accomplished men oi
his day, we must refer the invention of this — the
27. CANE PATTERN.
Ten threads being taken across the can-
vas, leave one thread between each stitch
to the end of the row. After this, take
four rows of Irish Stitch down the canvas
in shaded colours, which may be varied
The rapidity with which this stitch can
be worked, and the finish and neatness of
its general effect, render it one of the most
useful employed. Its narrowness is suggestive of
that kind of bordering which would interfere least
with the bolder and more massive character of sub-
jects forming the central portions of the work.
28. SUTHERLAND STITCH.
This Stitch has a very
charming effect worked as
plate, with beads in the spa-
ces worked with gold or sil-
ver thread. Having taken
twelve threads the width of
your canvas, reduce a stitch
one thread each way for six
rows, the last being on one
thread. Proceed thus, executing the next row in
the same manner, the stitch being the long way oi
29. DARMSTADT PATTERN.
Take one stitch straight over
two threads, increasing two
threads each way until six
threads are covered : the needle
must be taken out at the centre
of the last stitch. Now take
four threads, increase to six — decrease — form a di-
amond ; and work up the space in its centre with
silver or gold thread, or s-teel beads.
It is scarcely possible to form a conception of the
effect produced by this pattern when the colours
are skilfully selected, unless it be seen on a larger
30. PALACE PATTERN.
For this very pretty pattern, one
stitch must be taken over two threads,
the long way of the canvas, one
thread being increased each way until
eight threads are crossed, — then de-
crease to two threads. Proceed in the
same way for the next diamond, fill-
ing in the spaces with silk in bright
This is one of those designs which
never wearies the eye, possessing within itself great
variety of outline ; and so natural is its arrange-
ment, that notwithstanding the angularity of its
character, it never offends by the obtrusiveness ol
one portion over another.
_L_ — Lr i J r
76 THE LADY'S
3. PLAID PATTERNS.
These are copied from ribbons, and worked in
Two threads are taken across
the canvas, increasing one each
way to fourteen, and decreasing
similarly, progressing through-
out in the same way. For the
next row two threads are to be
taken down the canvas, increas-
ing and decreasing alternately. Finish with steel,
silver, or gold beads, or all three.
33. ROULEAU EDGING.
Procure a " Roulea'i fork," wind the wool six-
teen times round, take it off and fasten it by a stitch
of wool. Ends of twine being fixed to a leaden
cushion, the bows are placed between them, and
are confined in their position by tying the strings.
Our Parisian neighbours have the art of varying
the effect of this kind of edging with surprising
taste. No people are more skilful in the juxtapo-
sition of colours, which may arise from the facility
which they enjoy for seeing the best works of art
Algerine Work. — This work much resembles a
Venetian carpet, but is finer ; it looks best clone in
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 77
very small patterns. It is worked over cotton
piping cord, the straight way of the canvas ; the
stitches are over three threads. You work as in
raised work, putting the colours in as you come to
them, and counting three stitches in width as one
stitch, when you are working Berlin patterns. The
proper canvas is No. 45, and the cord No. 00. It
is proper for table mats, and other thick kinds of
To Fill up Corners. — Work in any stitch you
prefer, and shade in accordance with the subject.
In these, and ornamental borders, &c, there is much
room for the development of taste and judgment.
In all that you undertake, it will be well for you to
recollect that nothing is lost by taking time to think.
78 THE LADY'S
SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR WORKING ON CANVAS.
Instructions in Grounding. — Care must be
taken in grounding to make the effect of contrast
very conspicuous. Thus, if you ground in dark
colours, your pattern should be worked in shades
of a light and lively tint ; for those in which dark
shades predominate, a light ground is indispensable.
The canvas for white grounding should be white,
and if for dark grounding, a striped fabric is em-
ployed ; the stripes will sometimes appear through
the wool. To prevent this it will be necessary to
rub over the surface with a little Indian ink water,
previous to commencing working, but care must be
taken not to let the mixture run into the edge of
the work, and it must be quite dry before you com-
mence grounding. A camel's hair brush is best for
this purpose. In working in cross stitch, it is best
to do so on the slant, working from right to left
across the canvas, and then back again. This is
preferable to crossing each stitch as you proceed,
and gives an improved appearance to the work. If
you work in tent stitch, work straight, or your per-
formance will be uneven when taken out of the
frame. In all cases, begin to ground from the cen-
tre, and work outwards, taking care to fasten off as
you finish with each needleful, which should not be
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 79
too long, as the wool is liable to get rough and
soiled. It is also necessary to have them irregular
as to length, to prevent the fastenings coming to-
gether, which they will be apt to do, if this sug-
gestion is not attended to. For working in tent
stitch with single wool, the canvas must not have
more than fourteen threads to an inch ; for cross
stitch you must have a canvas not coaiser than
twenty-two threads to an inch ; for the former, you
will for every two and a half square inches require
a skein of wool ; in the latter case a skein will
cover two inches. Following this calculation, you
can easily ascertain the quantity of wool required
for any piece of work, and it is advisable to pur-
chase all your wool at the same time, otherwise you
will have much trouble in matching the shades.
An attention to these instructions will soon make
you a proficient in the grounding department of the
Working Figures. — This is at once one of the
most difficult, and at the same time one of the most
pleasing tasks, which the votary of fancy needle-
work will have to perform ; they generally produce
the best effect, when worked in wool and silk, with
a judicious mixture of gold and silver beads. The
hair and drapery should be worked in cross stitch ;
and the face, neck, and hands, in tent stitch ; work-
ing four of the latter, for one of the former. To
obtain the proper tints for the face, &c, is no easy
task ; but it must be carefully attended to, as al-
most the whole beauty of the work depends upon
>t. The shades, in these parts of the Sgure, must
80 THE LADY'S
be extremely close ; indeed upon the shading of the
features, the perfection of the performance mainly
depends. The drapery also demands considerable
care : the shades must be very distinct, particu-
larly the lighter ones, in the folds of the dress ; and
the back ground should be subdued, as much as
possible, that a proper prominence may be given to
the figure ; this object will be aided considerably,
by working in the lighter shades in silk ; and re-
presentations of water, or of painted glass, should
be worked in the same material. The intention of
the fair worker should be to give to her perform-
ance as near an approximation to oil painting as
Raised Work. — This should be done with Ger-
man wool, as it more nearly resembles velvet. For
working flowers, you must have two meshes, one-
seventh of an inch in width, and the pattern must
be worked in gobelin stitch. Be careful not to
take one mesh out, until you have completed the
next row. You work across the flowers ; and in
order to save an unnecessary waste of time, as well
as to facilitate your work, it will be best to thread
as many needles as you require shades, taking care
not to get the various shades mixed together. This
is the more needful, as you cannot, as in cross stitch,
finish one shade before commencing another. —
When the pattern is worked, cut straight across
each row, with a pair of scissors suitable to the
purpose, and shear the flower to its proper form.
For working animals or birds, you must have
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 81
three meshes ; the first, one quarter, and the third
one seventh of an inch ; the second must be a me-
dium between these two. You will require the
largest for the breast, and the upper parts of wings.
Cross stitch may be employed in working the beak,
or feet, and is indeed preferable. You can work
leaves, either in cross stitch or in gobelin stitch, as
taste or fancy may direct. You may work either
from a drawing on canvas, or from a Berlin pat-
tern, but the latter is decidedly to be preferred.
Working Berlin Patterns. — For these pat-
terns, it will be necessary to work in canvas of
eighteen or ten threads to the inch, according as
you may desire the work to be larger, or of the
same size as the pattern. And it must be borne in
mind that all the patterns are drawn for tent stitch,
so that if you work in cross stitch, and wish to
have it the same size as the pattern, you must count
twenty stitches on the canvas, for ten on the paper.
The choice of colours for these patterns is a matter
of essential importance, as the transition from shade
to shade, if sudden and abrupt, will entirely destroy
the beauty of the design. A natural succession of
tints, softly blending into each other, can alone pro-
duce the desired effect. In working flowers, five or
six shades will be required; in a rose, or other
large flower, six shades are almost indispensable ;
of these, the darkest should form the perfect cen-
tre, then the next — not prominently, though per-
ceptibly — differing from it, and then the next four
to the lightest tint ; the whole to be so managed as
82 THE LADY'S
to give to the flower that fulness and distinctness
which its position in the design demands. For
small flowers, so many shades are rarely necessary.
The two darkest shades should be strong, the others
soft; this secures sufficiency of contrast, without
impairing that harmony of tints which is so indis-
pensable. You must recollect, that for work done
in tent stitch, a greater contrast of shade is required
than for that done in cross stitch. This remark
should never be lost sight of. A proper attention
to the shading of leaves is also indispensable ; the
kinds of green required for this purpose, are bright
grass green for a rose ; saxon green for lilies, con-
volvolus, peonies, &c. ; French green for iris, mari-
gold, narcissus, &c. ; and for poppies, tulips, &c, a
willow green, which has a rather bluer tint than
French green is generally ; and for leaves which
stand up above the flowers, or near them, it is pro-
per to work the tips in a very light green, as re-
flecting the rays of light : the next shade should
be four times darker, or three at the least, the next
two, then the fourth shade two darker than the
third, and the nth two darker than the fourth.
Take care that the veins of leaves be distinctly
marked, and those which are in the shade should
be darker than those upon which the light falls, and
of a colour having a bluish tint ; a few worked in
olive green will have a fine effect. The stalks of
roses, &c, should be worked in olive brown, or a
very dark green. White flowers are often spoilt
by being worked of too dark a shade ; if you do
not work with silk, you may obtain two distinct
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 83
shades of white, by using Moravian cotton and
white wool ; these combined with three shades of
light stone colour, the second two shades darker
than the first, and the third darker than the second,
in the same proportions, will produce a beautiful
white flower, which if properly shaded by leaves of
the proper tints, will have a most beautiful appear-
ance. The lighter parts of all flowers in Berlin
patterns, may be worked in silk, and in many cases,
this is a decided improvement, but it should never
be introduced in the leaves ; here it would be out
of place. We again repeat, beware of servile
copying ; try to engage your own judgment in this
work, and remember that to become used to think
and to discriminate, is one of the most valuable ac
quisitions that a young lady can attain.
For bottle stand, or any small piece of work,
star patterns are very beautiful. The materials
proper for working them are silk and wool, with
gold or any other kind of beads, and gold thread or
twist. For foundations, you may use either vel-
vet or silk canvas.
Small sprigs are pretty for work which is not
too large ; chenille is proper for the flowers, and
the stalks and leaves look best in silk ; a few gold
beads add to the effect.
For large pieces of work, medallion patterns are
much used, and produce a good impression on the
eye ; the outline is to be traced in brilliant silk,
and for the centre employ two shades of the same
colour, working half in each shade ; tbe medallion
84 THE LADY'S
should be placed upon a white field, and the whole
grounded in a dark colour, "which harmonizes well
with the design of the pattern.
If you work on coarse canvass, adopt the same
contrast of shades as you employ in cross stitch ; if
the material be fine, you must shade as in tent
PATTERNS ON CANVAS.
Employ for canvas, four or five shades, begin-
ning: with the darkest, and softening gradually into
a lighter tint, till you come to the lightest, follow-
ing the distinction of contrast exhibited by the Ber-
lin patterns. If you wish to introduce silk into
any part, it will be best to work it in last. Be
careful to avoid taking odd threads, if you work
the pattern in cross stitch.
Work the arms and crest in silk, as brilliancy is
the thing here principally required. It wfll be
proper that the scroll should be worked in wool.
The contrast will have a pleasing effect.
These may be rendered extremely beautiful, if
properly managed. The trees in front should be
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 85
much lighter than those seen in the back ground,
and great care should be taken to prevent the lat-
ter having too blue a cast, as this renders them un-
harmonious when contrasted with the sky. Rep-
resent water by shades of a blue grey ; the sky
should be a serene blue, with much closeness, and
mingled with clouds composed of various tints of
white and a yellow drab. If mountains are seen
in the distance, they should be of a grey lavender
tint, and some living animal should, in nearly all
cases, be introduced. The presence of a cow,
sheep, &c, gives life and animation to the view.
If you work with wool, cut it into short lengths
and untwist it. No wool can be procured suffi-
ciently fine for this kind of work. If you work
with silk, the finest floss is preferable to any other ;
split silk would be found extremely inconvenient,
and the work would not look so well. Care must
be taken that the shades are very distinct, or they
will appear jumbled and unsightly. It will also be
necessary to fasten off at every shade, and not to
pass from one shade to another, as in that case, the
fastenings would become visible on the right side,
and thus impair the beauty of the performance. In
working a landscape, some recommend placing be-
hind the canvas a painted sky, to avoid the trouble
of working one. As a compliance with such ad-
vice would tend to foster habits of idleness and de-
ception, and thus weaken that sense of moral nro-
S6 THE LADY'S
priety, which should, in all we do, be ever present
with us, as well as destroy that nice sense of honour
and sincerity which flies from every species of de-
ceit ; we hope the fair votaries of this delightful
art, will reject the suggestions with the contempt it
GEM, OR . SET PATTERNS.
For this kind of work ground in black or dark
wool, and work the pattern in silks, as distinct and
bright as possible, and with the utmost variety of
colours. The beauty of these productions depends
chiefly upon their brilliant and gem-like appear-
The needles must not be too large, or the holes
will be liable to get broken. The smaller ones
must be worked in silk ; the larger patterns may be
done either in silk or wool. Sometimes the flow-
ers are worked in Chenille, and the leaves in silk;
this gives to card cases, &c, a beautiful and highly
Use the canvas called bolting; and work two
threads each way on the slant, with china silk, ta-
king especial care that the beads are all turned the
same way, that the whole may appear uniform.
Work the pattern with thick beads and ground
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 87
witn transparent ones. You must, in this kind of
work, have as few shades as possible.
Trace this pattern in the material, and proceed
with the various shades from the outline or light-
est, to the darkest, till the whole is completed. In
this work only two shades are required for leaves,
and three for flowers ; make the points as sharp as
possible, and in turning them, work one stitch up
close to the point where you turn the braid, and an-
other immediately afterwards, to keep it in place.
Vein the leaves in a bouquet with pure silk, use
gold twist in finishing, as taste may direct ; and in
fastening, draw the braid through the matenal.
The best instrument for this purpose, is a Chenille
needle. In braid w T ork and applique, only one
stitch must be taken at a time, or the work will ap-
When we descend into the arena of domestic
utility, it is vastly surprising in how many ways the
Art of Needlework adapts itself to comfort and to
ornament. We may presume carpets to be too un-
wieldy for the management of fair fingers; but
rugs come within the compass of the fair Artist's
skill and taste. Many of the borderings complet-
ed by English ladies are quite equal to the laboured
productions of the Gobelins ; and are, of, course, at
88 THE LADY'S
all limes superior to those which emanate from the
Use a wooden mesh, about an inch and a quar-
ter in width, grooved. The materiel is passed over
the mesh, and worked in cross-stitch. A kind of
worsted called slacks is used for this purpose, six
or eight times doubled ; leave three threads be-
tween each row, and six or eight rows are general-
ly required to form the border. Turquoise or Tulip
"•■^^^wood stands are more generally in use than this
It is desirable that the insterstices should corres-
pond with those of the canvases employed in nee-
dlework, or a coarseness of surface will be inevita-
ble. Baskets, &c. are usually dark in colour as the
ground for embroidery : but why not adopt lighter
colours ? Dead silver, for instance ; or dead gold
(the wire being washed with a preparation of gold
or silver) would be of great beauty, and, if desired,
the upper rim or other enrichments might be burn-
In doing work of this description, you must be
careful to wash it well with sponge previously to
workino-, or the paint will soil your silk or wool.
There are a great many pretty forms for fruit and
other baskets which look well finished off with cap
chenille, a small w T reath for the pattern being work-
ed around the basket. There are also very pretty
blotting books, note cases, &c, done in this way,
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 89
lined with silk, and filled witfi blotting paper of
ARTICLES OF LUXURY THAT MAY BE
WORKED ON CANVAS.
For dark-framed chairs choose light patterns ;
tent stitch being grounded in cross stitch, as may
be seen in the private apartments at Windsor Cas-
tle. Sometimes a sort of cushion is inserted in the
back, and the whole is done in cloth or satin, and
the canvas withdrawn. Flow T er embroidery, gem
patterns, and braiding, are all made use of in this
description of work.
These should be made up with a deep fringe,
and may be of any size in harmony with the rest
of the furniture. Foot Ottomans should be sixteen
90 THE LADY'S
Either in flowers or figures, this piece of furni-
ture has a very elegant appearance. Sobriety oi
colour, when figures are introduced, should always
be studied. The same maybe said of Pole screens.
Candle Screens should be mounted in silver or gilt.
Hand Screens should be worked in wire, card-board,
or canvas, mounted with velvet or Mosaic leather.
These are now made in electro-plated frames, or
those of rosewood, the needlework being in the
These should be executed in cloth, thirty-three
inches long and twenty-six wide.
BORDERS FOR TABLE COVERS.
Silk velvet covers worked round the border in gold
braid and embroidered flowers, and finished with a
rich fringe, present an exquisite coup oV&uil, — wit-
ness those at the mansion of the duke of Buccleugh
in Whitehall Gardens.
If we may judge from the paintings of interiors
in the olden time, similar embellishments were in
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 91
Work the squares of canvas with flowers in pre-
ference to any other pattern, and finish with damask,
trimming with silk cord, tassels, &c.
There are few subjects on which more taste may
be exercised than on these. A certain fulness ap-
proaching to largeness is desirable in the design,
otherwise the pillow 7 will be lost in the more mas-
sive attributes of the sofa itself.
These may be obtained ready-made, and after-
wards covered w r ith any variegated pattern of nee-
dlework. They are very useful.
These should be of silver w r ire, and w T orked in
Should be worked from a Berlin pattern, and
trimmed w T ith Chenille.
After being worked on electro-plated gold wire,
these should be lined with silk, and the blotting pa-
per (azure is a pretty colour) inserted.
92 THE LADY'S
Are worked in embroider}', on canvas, satin, or
For Pic-nic Carpet seats, the parts are usually
worked separately, and then sewed together.
Smoking Carpets are of various sizes and shapes,
and are useful to place upon a lawn in fine weath-
er. They are wadded and quilted at the back.
Any pattern may be adopted, but flowers are the
These are worked in gems, or flowers, or velvet.
Embroidery and gold braid are also adopted.
There are several pieces joined together to fit the
head, and at the top is a handsome tassel.
These are worked on silk canvas, and commonly
in silk. The flowers must be made to meet at the
half of each brace. The leathern portions, which
may be purchased separately, are then to be added.
These are filled with down, finished at the back
with silk, and trimmed with cord.
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 93
HINTS UPON TINTS.
There is no little difficulty in selecting canvas
appropriate to the intended pattern. Eighteen
threads to the inch is a canvas fitted to a pattern a-
bout ninety-five stitches square : and this latter
should be worked in cross-stitch, with wool doub-
led. Ten-stitch should be used on silk canvas,
when grounding is required, the pattern being large
As to Colours, much judgment is required in
their election, as to differences and distinctness of
shade, the transitions not being too sudden, or the
work w T ill have a broken and inharmonious aspect.
It is very difficult to give directions on this subject,
as every kind of w T ork differs as to the treatment
required; but it may be safely stated that the same
good taste which prevails in Water Colour Paint-
ing, should preside in Fancy Needlework, with this
exception, that greater depth and brilliancy may le-
gitimately be aimed at. Remember, as a special
rule, that where the stitches are small, the colours
will not show so obviously, and therefore stronger
contrast w T ill be indispensable.
It requires much discrimination to give a natural
hue to leaves, and, at the same time, to effect such
contrasts as will give a due relief. Portions of each
should be much lighter than others, and in the
grouping a mass should be thrown into shadow un-
94 THE LADY S
der the bright leaves; such shadow being compos-
ed of dark green, blended with neutral tint. Silks
should only be introduced in the flowers, and chief-
ly in the lightest portions of them ; white exacts
considerable management, as it should be shaded
off with exquisite delicacy, by means of tints that
have much white in them.
In coats of arms and crests, these precautions are
unnecessary for the most part, as distinctness and
brilliancy are the main qualities demanded. The
effect is truly beautiful. Colours have an exceed-
ingly good effect on perforated card; and many la-
dies adopt this material, working in silk or che-
nille, and sometimes in wools. In Bead work, a
canvas, called bolting, is in request, as it is of suffi-
cient strength. Use transparent beads for the
grounding, and be very careful that the beads all
turn the same w T ay. Beads of all colours, and of
every metal, in its most brilliant form, may be ob-
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 95
1. The best Wool is that from Saxony, which is
derived from the Merino. The late King paid
much attention to improving the quality, and much
increased the importations of Sheep from Spain.
2. Floss Silk is commonly used in Fancy Nee-
3. Of Gold: the fabrics used are, Passing (a.
thin thread) ; Cord (two or more threads, twisted) ;
Braid (plated material); and Bullion (a smooth
tube, exquisitely twisted); Spangles, Lama, or
Paillet (gilt plate, very thin); Beads and Fringes
are also used.
4. Mother of Pearl, in various forms ; and al-
so the scales of certain Fish, are used decoratively.
5. Chenille is in common use : the shades should
6. Braid — Russian, French, Round : and Union
Cord is much employed.
7. Paillettes of polished steel are very pret-
ty in purse-work.
8. Canvases of Silk, Cotton, Thread or Woollen
are employed ; but woollen canvas does not look
by any means so rich as work grounded. French
Flat embroidery, in silk canvas, is much in vogue.
9G THE LADY'S
ROYAL AND NOBLE LADIES
WHO HAVE EXCELLED IX NEEDLE-WORK.
There are many reasons why the employment «>f
the Needle in Embroidery, &c. should enjoy a very
eminent popularity ; for while it charms away the
loneliness of solitude, it adds to our stock of useful
possessions. Moreover, it is attended by no fa-
tigue, and agreeably excites the imagination and
inventive faculties. No wonder, therefore, that the
Royal and Highborn have in all ages favoured so
delightful an occupation.
In many works we find it recorded that the la-
dies of Greece were famous for their labours in
tapestry, and that embroidery more particularly
contributed to adorn the person. The standards,
also, which flaunted o'er the battle-field, were equal-
ly the care of the gentler sex. That of the "Ra-
ven," woven bv Danish Princesses, and so much
dreaded by the opponents of the Sea Kings, is of
historical notoriety. Among other examples of ad-
mirable needlework by the beautiful Adelicia,
Queen of Henry the First, was a standard of silk
and embroidery, subsequently captured at the Battle
of Duras, and placed in the cathedral at Liege.
As holding the mirror up to one of the most im-
portant events recorded in our annals, the Ba-
Silk, with moving passementeries: trimmings to match, gaufred and edged
WORK-BOX COMPANION. 97
yeux Tapestry of Queen Matilda is a most curious
and magnificent specimen of the Art. There has
been some dispute among antiquaries as to the ex-
act origin of this celebrated production, but the dis-
cussion has terminated in confirming the fact that
the wife of the conquerer Duke William, wrought
the " Historie" in honour of her illustrious husband.
It is truly a " painting with the needle" of the
highest class, and forms one of the best ground-
works for correct data as to the manners, customs,
and dress of the period — that is, the year 1666.
The length of this great work is 228 feet and the
breadth twenty inches and an eighth. It is
now kept in the Town Hall, Rouen, and is pre-
served with much care ; but at the period of the
great revolution it was in danger of being utterly
destroyed, by being employed instead of canvas as
a cover for artillery. Fortunately, a priest conceal-
ed it, and it was subsequently placed by Napoleon
under the charge of Denon, and exhibited in Paris
and elsewhere, in order to stimulate the people in
favour of a second attempt to invade and conquer
The material on which this work is executed is
white cloth, and the design is completed in coloured
worsteds. The colours are few, but are generally
appropriate, — the cloth itself being left for flesh
tints. There is an allegorical border ; and the
events are rendered distinct, and therefore more
easily apprehended, by a tree, the entire depth of
the canvas, at intervals. The names of the per-
sons represented, and of the immediate action, are
9S THE LADY'S
also given ; so that a two-fold appeal is made to
the comprehension of the spectator.
Not only does this famous production throw
much light upon the customs of the time ; it also
furnishes a clue to the European origin of needle-
work of this description ; for the excellence to
which it had arrived long prior to the Crusades,
makes it evident that France and the Netherlands
were not indebted to the East for its introduction.
The earlier and principal establishments were at
Valenciennes, Brussels, Bruges, and Antwerp ; but
the most admired productions were probably those
of Arras. The Gobelins manufactory was estab-
lished in France by Sully, in the reign of Henry
the Fourth. It was, however, in the reign of Louis
the Fourteenth that the productions of this royal fac-
tory became celebrated ; and they have since that
time achieved, periodically, an increased renown.
The Gobelin copies after Julio Romano and
Raphael are the most exquisite works in their kind
that the world can boast.
After having said thus much of the moderns, and
their advancement in this branch of Art, it would
ill become us to overlook the glorious productions
of Needle-Work among the chosen people of God.
The daughters of Jerusalem prided themselves
on the garments worked by them for the conserva-
tion of their religious rites, and in that most sacred
performance the " veil." It was of linen, embroid-
ered with every possible device of flowers, so that
the ground-work was no longer visible. Beautiful
and accomplished maidens ! ye have passed away
and so also have the pious labours of your hands;
but God and nature are still watchful over the
scenes of so much glory, combined with so much c .
suffering and of change !
MILLINERY, MANTUA MAKING,
AND ALL BRANCHES OF
WITH PARTICULAR DIRECTIONS FOR CUTTING OUT
JHlustratetf toftl) fourteen Hnjjvab?na».
9 * ( 101 )
The dress of a lady has been styled, and not impro-
perly, the " index of her mind." She cannot, therefore,
be too careful to make the index a true one, and one
which the eye of an observer would peruse with plea-
The charms of every woman are heightened by a neat
and becoming attire ; and her costume can never be so
becoming as when planned by herself, if not entirely
made by her own hands.
A knowledge of Millinery and Mantua Making may
therefore be ranked amongst the accomplishments most
useful to a highly educated woman. In the following
little volume such minute instructions in the art of
mantua making have been given, that every lady may,
with but little practice, become her own dress-maker.
And if she prefers the assistance ot others, she will, by
a perusal of the work, gain that information which will
enable her to superintend their labours.
Millinery is one of the most difficult branches of nee-
dlework. To become a successful milliner, not only
practice is required, but some natural taste for the occu-
pation. We have endeavoured to lay down a few cer-
tain rules, and to simplify our instructions in such a
manner that the most inexperierced may comprehend
Many valuable stitches will be found under the head
of Plain Needlework, with explanatory remarks and
engravings, which will render them comprehensible to
persons least accustomed to the use of the needle.
THE LADY'S SELF-INSTRUCTOR
ftltlltncrt), ittantua-illaktng, €tc.
EXPLANATION OF STITCHES.
Hemming. — Turn down the raw edge as evenly
as possible. Flatten, and be careful, especially in
turning down the corners. Hem from rio-ht to
left ; bring the point of the needle from the chest
towards the right hand. Fasten the thread with-
out a knot, and when you finish, sew several stitch-
es close together, and cut off the thread.
Mantua-Maker's Hei\i. — You lay the raw edge of
one of your pieces a little below that of the other j
the upper edge 'is then turned over the other
twice, and felled down as strong as possible.
Sewing and Felling. — If you have selvages,
join them together, and sew them firmly. If you
have raw edges, turn down one of the edges once,
and the other double the breadth, and then turn
half of it back again. This is for the fell. The
106 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
two pieces are pinned together face to face, and
seamed together ; the stitches being m a slanting
direction, and just deep enough to hold the sepa-
rate pieces firmly together. Then flatten the seam
with the thumb, turn the work over, and fell it
the same as hemming. The thread is fastened by
being worked between the pieces and sewn over.
Running. — Take three threads, leave three, and
in order that the work may be kept as firm as pos-
sible, backstitch occasionally. If you sew selvages,
they must be joined evenly together ; but if raw
edges, one must be turned down once, and the
other laid upon it but a few threads from the top.
It is, in this case, to be felled afterward.
Stitching. — The work must be as even as possi-
ble. Turn down a piece to stitch to, draw a
thread to stitch upon twelve or fourteen threads
from the edge. Being thus prepared, you take
two threads back, and so bring the needle out from
under two before. Proceed in this manner to the
end of the row ; and in joining a fresh piece of
thread, take care to pass the needle between the
edges, and to bring it out where the last stitch was
Gathering. — You begin, by taking the article to
be gathered, and dividing it into halves, and then
into quarters ; putting on pins to make the divis-
ions. The piece to which you are intending to
gather it, must be gathered about twelve threads
from the top, taking three threads on the needle,
and leaving four ; and so proceeding alternately
until one quarter is gathered. Fasten the thread
by twisting it round a pin ; stroke the gathers, so
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 107
that they lie evenly and neatly, with a strong nee-
dle or pin. You then proceed as before, until all
the gathers are gathered. Then take out the pins,
and regulate the gathers of each quarter so as to
correspond with those of the piece to which it is
to be sewed. The gathers are then to be fastened
on, one at a time ; and the stitches must be in a
slanting direction. The part to be gathered, must
be cut quite even before commencing, or else it
will be impossible to make the gathering look well.
Double Gathering, or Puffing. — This is some-
times employed in setting on frills, and, w r hen ex-
ecuted properly, has a pretty effect. You first
gather the top in the usual way j then, having
stroked down the gathers, you gather again under
the first gathering, and of such a depth as you
wish the puffing to be. You then sew on the first
gathering to the gown, frock, &c. you design to
trim, at a distance corresponding with the width
of the puffing, and the second gathering sew r ed to
the edge so as to form a full hem. You make a
double hem, if you please, by gathering three times
instead of only twice ; and one of the hems may
be straight, while the other is drawn to one side a
little. This requires much exactness in the exe-
cution, but, if properly done, it gives a pleasing,
variety to the work.
German Hemming. — Turn down both the raw
edges once, taking care so to do it as that b oth
turns may be towards your person j you then lay
one below the other, so as that the smooth edge
of the nearest does not touch the other, but lies
108 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
just beneath it. The lower one is then to be hem
med or felled to the piece aginst which you have
laid it, still holding it before you. You are next
to open your sleeve, or whatever else you have
been engaged upon; and laying the upper fold
over the lower, fell it down, and the work is done.
Whipping. — You cut the edge smooth, and di-
vide into halves and quarters, as for gathering.
You then roll the muslin, or other material, very
lightly upon the finger, making use of the left
thumb for that purpose. The needle must go in
on the outside. The whipping cotton should be
as strong and even as possible. In order that the
stitches may draw with ease, they must be taken
with great care. The roll of the whip should be
about ten threads.
Herring-Boning. — This is generally employed
in articles composed of flannel,
or other thick material. The
edge is to be cut even, and turn-
ed down once. You work from
left to right, thus : put your needle into the mate-
rial, and take a stitch of two or three threads as
closely as possible under the raw edge, and bring
the needle half way up that part which is turned
down, and four or five threads towards the right
hand— make another stitch, and bring down the
needle ; thus proceed until the work is completed.
This stitch is something like the backbone of a
fish, and is sometimes used as an ornament for
children's robes, and at the tops of hems, &c. It
looks both neat and elegant when carefully execu
S P s
o I 3
| So 4
m 2;S* to
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PLAIN SEWING, ETC.
^Fancy Herring-Boning. — This is the
same as common herring-bone, only that it
is done in a perpendicular manner, instead
of from right to/left ; and the thread is
brought round behind the needle, so as to
finish the work in a more tidy manner. It
has an exceedingly neat and pleasing look
when well executed.
Double Herring-Boning. — This pat-
tern is a kind of double herring-bone
on each side. The engraving will give
a better idea of this stitch than any de-
scription we could give. Great care
being required to keep the pattern even,
it is advisable to run a tacking-thread,
as a guide, down the middle of it.
Button-Hole. — These should be cut by a thread,
and their length should be that of
the diameter of the button. In
working, the button-hole is to lie
lengthwise upon the fore-finger ;
and you begin at the side which
is opposite to the thumb, and the
furthest from the point of the finger on which it is
laid. The needle must go in on the wrong side
and be brought out on the right, five threads down.
To make the stitch, the needle is passed through
the loop before it is tightened or drawn closely.
Care must be taken in turning the corners, not to
do it too near ; and, in order that a proper thick-
110 MILLINERY, MANTL T A-MAKING,
ness may be obtained, it is necessary that the nee-
dle should go in between every two threads. Mak
ing button-holes requires great care and attention.
Fancy Button-Hole Stitch. — This resembles a
very wide button-hole stitch, and is
very neat for the fronts of bodies,
likewise for the bands and shoul-
der-bits, and above the broad hems
and tucks of frocks.
Chain Stitch. — In making this stitch, you are to
employ union cord, bobbin, or braid,
whichever you deem most suitable. —
Make a knot at the end, and draw it
through to the right side. While you
put in the needle, let the end hang loose-
ly, and bring it out below, so as to in-
cline a little toward the left. Pass your
needle over the cord as you draw it out,
and this will form a loop. In drawing
out the mesh, you must be careful not
to draw the stitch too tight, as that would destroy
the effect. You proceed in the same manner to
form the next and each succeeding loop ; taking
care to put the needle in a little higher, and rather
more to the right than in the preceding stitch, so
that each loop begins within the lower part of the
one going before it, and you thus produce the re-
semblance of a chain.
Chain Stitch, on Gathers. — This looks well if
worked in colored worsted or cord. Two gathers
are taken up for each stitch, taking care always to
take one of the previous stitches and one new
gather on the needle at the same time.
PLAIN SEWING, ETC.
Fancy Chain Stitch. — The only difference be-
tween this and common chain stitch is
that very little of the cord is taken up
on the needle at a time, and the stitch-
es are far from each other. Its ap-
pearance will be varied accordingly
as you put in the needle to slant little
or much. If you work it perfectly
horizontally, it is button-hole stitch.
Coral Pattern. — This requires great accuracy
in the working, and it is advisa-
^ ble for the inexperienced to run
lines in long stitches, to fix the
middle and outsides of the pat-
tern. It may be best under-
stood from the engraving, mere-
ly observing that the stitch is be-
gun on the left hand, and continued alternately
from left to right, always pointing the needle tow-
ard the centre. It is very suitable for the waist-
bands of children's frocks, the tops of broad hems,
Fancy Bobbin Edging. — This is formed by a suc-
cession of loops, made in the fol-
lowing manner : Make a knot at
the end, and put the needle
through to the right side, just be-
low the hem. Bring the bobbin
over the hem, and putting in the
needle at the wrong side, bring it
through. Draw the loop to the size you desire,
pass the bobbin through it, and commence the next
stitch, proceeding as before.
The Serpentine Stitch. — This is exceedingly
pretty, and is much employed for children's
dresses. It is worked with the hand, being"
sown on to the material when made. Take
s| the cord, knot it so as to form a loop at one
end, then pass the other end through the
loop toward the front, to form another loop
toward the right hand; continue passing the
bobbin through the loop on one side, then
through the loop on the other, directing the cord
so to pass from the side of the work invariably to-
ward the inner part, or that part next the work.
The Angular Stitch. — This stitch resembles
£ ; , button-hole stitch, only that it is carried
^Qj from right to left for the purpose of form-
ing the pattern. It is a very neat ornament
for cuffs, skirts, and capes of children's pe-
lisses. As much of its beauty depends on
its regularity, care should be taken to
make the patterns very even and straight,
and of equal width.
The Horse-Shoe Stitch. — This is done with
thick, loosely-twisted cotton, or bob-
bin, and is worked from left to right,
as shown in the accompanying en-
graving. It has an exceedingly pret-
ty appearance — especially when it is
worked near the edge of robings,
Honey-Combing. — The material may be velvet,
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 113
silk, &c, and the mode of work-
ing it is as follows : The piece
you intend honey-combing must
be creased in regular folds, taking care that they
are as even as possible. Then make the folds lie
closely together by tacking them with a strong
thread, and on long stitches. You then take silk
of the proper colour — stitch together, at equal and
moderate distances, the first two folds, and pro-
ceed with each succeeding two in the same man-
ner, only taking the stitches in the intermediate
spaces. Thus the stitches of each alternate row
will correspond together. Draw out the thread
when the work is finished, and on pulling it open,
it will form diamonds on the right side. This
work is proper for the inside of work-boxes,
and is sometimes employed to ornament the tops
of beds. It looks well if carefully executed.
Binding. — Various kinds of work have binding
set on to them, in preference to hemming them,
or working them in herring-bone stitch. Flannel
is generally bound, sometimes with a thin tape,
made for the purpose, called "flannel binding."
It is also common to bind flannel with sarcenet ri-
band. The binding is so put on as to show but
little over the edge on the right side, where it is
114 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
hemmed down neatly ; on the other side it is run
on with small stitches.
Braiding. — Silk braid looks pretty, and is used
for a variety of purposes. In putting it on, it is
best to sew it with silk drawn out of the braid, as
it is a better match, and the stitches will be less
Marking. — It is of essential importance that
clothes should be marked and numbered. This is
often done with ink; but as some persons like to
mark with silk, we shall describe the stitch. Two
threads are to be taken each way of the cloth, and
the needle must be passed three ways, in order
that the stitch may be complete. The first is
aslant from the person, toward the right hand.
The second is downward toward you; and the
third is the reverse of the first — that is, aslant
from you toward the left hand. The needle is to
be brought out at the corner of the stitch nearest
to that you are about to make. The shapes of the
letters or figures can be learned from an inspec-
tion of any common sampler.
Piping. — This is much used in ornamenting chil-
dren's and other dresses. It is made by enclos-
ing a card of the proper thickness in a strip of silk
cut crosswise, and must be put on as evenly as
Plaiting. — The plaits must be as even as it is
possible to place them one against another. In
double plaiting, they lie both ways, and meet in
Biasing. — In this operation the first part of the
stitch is the same as gathering. You then stitch
PLAIN SEWING, ETC.
down ; and upon the right side
of the gather you lay a thread a
good deal thicker than the one
you used for gathering. Over
this thread you sew, taking care
to take hold of the gathering
J thread. The needle is to be
pointed to your chest. You may work two or
three rows in this way upon the sleeves and shoul-
ders of dresses, &c. which has a very handsome
effect. You must take care to bring the needle
out between each gather.
Tucks. — These require to be made even. You
should have the breadth of the tuck, and also the
space between each, notched on a card. They
look the best run on with small and regular stitch-
es. You must be careful to take a backstitch con-
stantly as you proceed.
Making Buttons. — Cover the wire with a piece
of cotton cloth, or other material of the proper
size ] turn in the corners neatly, and work round
the wire in button-hole stitch : work the centre
like a star.
In making up linen, thread is much preferable
to cotton. Sewing silk should be folded up neatly
in wash leather, and colored threads and cotton in
paper, as the air and light are likely to injure
them. Buttons, hooks and eyes, and all metal
implements, when not in use, should be kept fold-
ed up, as exposure to the air not only tarnishes
them, but is likely to injure them in a variety of
Night Gowns. — These must be made of a size
116 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
suitable for the wearer. The following are direc-
tions for three different sizes : The length of the
gown on the skirts is one yard and a half for the
first size, one yard and six nails for the second, and
one yard and three nails for the third ; the width
of the material is eighteen, sixteen, and fourteen
nails respectively ; and the garment is to have one
yard and a half breadth in width. They are to be
crossed so as to be at the bottom twenty-one,
eighteen, and sixteen nails, and at the top fifteen,
fourteen and twelve nails, as the sizes may re-
quire. The length of the sleeves is nine, eight, and
seven nails, and the width is half a breadth : they
are to be furnished with gussets, three, two, and
two nails square, and with wristbands of the pro-
per width, and of any depth that is deemed desir-
able. A binder of one nail and a half is put down
the selvage of each sleeve, which strengthens it
much. The gown is furnished with a collar about
three nails deep, and of the length required by the
wearer ; and, in order that it may fit properly,
neck gussets of two, one, and one nail square, are
to be introduced. A slit of about six nails is made
in front, which is hemmed round, and the space
left for the shoulders is three, two and a half, and
two nails respectively. The whole is finished
with a neat frill round the collar and wristbands.
If economy is an object, cut three gowns together.
This will prevent much waste of material ; an ob-
ject, by every head of a family to be kept constant-
ly in view.
A Dress Scarf. — This is made of broad satin
riband, and must not be less than two nails and a
half wide : its length is two yards and three quar-
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 117
ters. The riband is to be doubled on the wrong
side, and run in a slanting direction, so as to cause
it to fall gracefully on the neck. The ends are to
be embroidered and ornamented with braid. The
scarf is to be surrounded by an edging of swans'
down. This is an elegant article of female attire.
A Plain Scarf. — This is generally made of net,
the whole breadth, and two yards and a half long.
It is hemmed all round with a broad hem, so as to
admit a riband to be run in, which gives it a neat
and finished appearance.
An Indian Scarf. — This is an elegant article of
dress, and can be easily made. The material is a
rich Cashmere, and three colours are required j that
is, black, scarlet, and a mazarine blue. You must
have the scarf four nails and a half in width, and
one yard and six nails in length ; this must be
black. Then you must have of the other two col-
ours, pieces seven nails long, and the same width
as the black ; and you are, after finding the exact
middle of the black stripe, to slope off one nail and
a half towards each side, and then slope one end
of the blue and of the scarlet piece, so as to make
them accord precisely with the ends of the black
previously prepared. You are to cut one nail and
a half from the middle to the ends. You are then
to split the blue and the scarlet stripes down the
middle, and join half of the one to the half of the
other, as accurately as possible. The pieces thus
joined together are to -be sewn to the black stripe,
and the utmost care must be taken to make the
points unite properly. You are to sew the pieces
flat together, and herring-bone them all round on
118 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
the right side. You finish by laying a neat silk
gimp all round and over all the joinings. It should
be of a clear bright colour. The ends are to be
fringed with scarlet and blue to correspond with
the two half stripes.
Che::ises. — These are generally made of fine
Irish linen, or cotton cloth. They are made ei-
ther with gores or crossed. The latter is the
neatest method. Two breadths are sufficient for a
full-sized shift, and gores are cut off of a given
width at the bottom, and extending to a point, in
order to widen the garment. In crossing a shift,
you first sew the long seams; then you double it
in a slanting direction, so as to mark off at top
and bottom ten nails at opposite corners ; this
done, you join the narrow ends together, and sew
the cross seams, leaving a sufficient slit for the
armholes. There are various methods of cutting
the back and bosom. Some cut out a scollop both
before and behind : but in this case the back is
hollowed out one-third less than the front. Some
ladies hollow out the back, but form the bosom
with a flap, which may be cut either straight or in
a slanting direction from the shoulders. Another
method of forming: the bosom is bv cutting- the
shoulder-straps separate from the shift and mak-
ing the top quite straight : bosom gores are then
let in, in front : the top is hemmed both before
and behind, and a neat frill gives a finish to the
whole. The sleeves may be either set in plain or
full, as suits the taste of the wearer. Sometimes
the sleeve and gusset are both in one piece; at
other times they are separate. In all cases great
care should be taken, in cutting out, not to waste
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 119
the material. For this purpose it is always advis-
able to cut out several at one time. Chemises for
children of from five to ten years of age are gener-
ally made with flaps both before and behind. This
is decidedly the neatest shape for them. The bot-
tom, in all cases, should be hemmed with a broad
Shirts. — These are generally made of linen, but
cotton cloth is also made use of. The degree of
fineness must be determined by the occupation and
station of the wearer. A long piece of linen will,
if cut with care, make several shirts of an ordina-
ry man's size. In cutting, you must take a shirt
of the required dimensions as a pattern, and by it
measure the length of several bodies, not cutting
any but the last. Then cut off the other bodies,
and from the remainder cut off the sleeves, binders,
gussets, <&c, measuring by the pattern. Bosom
pieces, falls, collars, &c, must be fitted and cut
by a paper or other pattern which suits the persor
for whom the articles are intended. In making
up, the bodies should be doubled, so as to leave
the front flap one nail shorter than that behind.
Then marking off the spaces for the length of the
riaps and arm-holes, sew up the seams. The bo-
som slit is five nails, and three nails is the space
left for the shoulders. The space for the neck
will be nine nails. One breadth of the cloth makes
the sleeves, and the length is from nine to ten
nails. The collar and the wristbands are made to
fit the neck and wrists, and the breadths are so
various that no general rule can be given. You
make the binders or linings about twelve nails in
length and three in breadth; and the sleeve gus-
'120 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
sets are three, the neck gusset two, the flap gus-
sets one, and the bosom gusset half a nail square.
The work or stitches introduced into the collar,
wristbands, &c, are to be regulated according to
the taste of the maker or the wearer.
Gentlemen's night shirts are made in a similar
manner, only that they are larger. The cloth re-
commended to be used is that kind of linen or cot-
ton which is called shirting width. Where a
smaller size is required, a long strip will cut off
from the width, which will be found useful for
binders, wristbands, &c.
Gentlemen's Fronts. — The material is fine lawn
or cambric. Sometimes the sides are composed
of the former, and the middle of the latter. A
false hem is made down the middle, furnished with
buttons, as if to open ; the neck is hollowed to the
depth of a nail, and is plaited or gathered into a
stock or band. In order that it may sit neat upon
the bosom, two neck gussets are introduced.
Lady's Flannel Waistcoat. — This is in many
cases an indispensable article of female attire. For
an ordinary size, you must take a piece of flannel
twelve nails wide and seven deep, folding it exact-
ly in the middle. At two nails from the front,
which is doubled, the arm-holes must be cut, leav-
ing two nails for half of the back. The front is to
be slightly hollowed. At the bottom cut a slit of
three nails, immediately under the arm-holes, into
which insert a gore three nails broad and the same
in length, and terminating in a point. Bosom
gores are also to be introduced of a similar shape
and just half the size — put in just one nail from
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 121
the shoulder-strap. In making the waistcoat, it is
to be herring-boned all round, as are also all the
goros and slits. A broad tape, one nail in width,
is laid down each side of the front, in which the
button-holes are made and buttons set on ; the
shoulder-straps are of tape, and the waistcoat fast-
ens in front.
Bustles, or Tourneures. — These are worn to
make the waist of the gown sit neatly upon the
person. They are made the width of the material
and eight nails deep. The piece is to be so dou-
bled as to make two flounces, one four nails and a
half, and the other three and a half deep. A case
to admit of tapes to be made one nail from the
top. When worn, the article is turned inside out.
The materials are strong jean, cotton cloth, or In-
Aprons. — These are made of a variety of mate-
rials, and are applied to various uses. The aprons
used for common purposes, are made of white,
blue, brown, checked, and sometimes of black lin-
en ; nankeen, stuff, and print, are also employed.
The width is generally one breadth of the materi-
al, and the length is regulated by the height of the
wearer. Dress aprons are, of course, made of fin-
er materials, cambric muslin, satin, lace, clear and
other kinds of muslin, &c, and are generally two
breadths wide, one of which is cut in two so as to
throw a seam on each side, and leave an entire
breadth for the middle. Aprons of all kinds are
straight, and either plaited or gathered on to the
band or stock at the top. Those with only one
breadth, are hemmed at the bottom with a broad
hem, those with two breadths must be hemmed
122 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
at the sides likewise. The band should be frorr
half a nail to a nail broad ; its length is to be de-
termined by the waist of the wearer. It should be
fastened at the back with hooks and eyelet holes.
To some aprons pockets are attached, which are
either sewed on in front, or at the back, and a slit
made in the apron to correspond with them. The
slit or opening - of the pocket is to be hemmed neat-
ly, or braided, as may be most desirable. In some
kinds of aprons bibs are introduced, which are use-
ful to cover the upper part of the dress. Their
size must be determined by the taste of the person
who is to wear them.
Dress Aprons. — Take two breadths of any mate-
rial you choose, dividing one of them in the mid-
dle. Hem all round with a broad hem three-
fourths of a nail deep. The band is to be one and
a half nails deep in the middle, into which a piece
of whalebone is to be inserted, on each side of
which work a row or two in chain-stitch. The
band is scolloped out from the centre on its low-
er side five and a half nails, leaving the extrem-
ities of the band one nail broad. To the scollop-
ed portion the apron is to be fulled on, so as to sit
as neat as possible, leaving the space beneath the
whalebone plain. Confine the folds by working
two rows of chain-stitch just below the curved
lines of the band, leaving half an inch between
each row. The lower edge of the band is orna
mented with a small piping, but is left plain at the
Vandyke Apron. — This may be made either ol
silk or muslin. The edge of the apron is to be
turned down once all round on the ri^ht side to th«
PL4IN SEWING, ETC 123
depth of three quarters of a nail, and the Vandykes
are formed by running from the edge of the apron
to near the rough edge of the material, which is af-
terwards to be turned in. When the Vandykes arc
completed, they are to be turned inside out ana
made as smooth as possible. A braid or a row of
tent-stitch on the right side over the stitches is a
pretty finish. In setting on the band, the plaits
must be placed opposite to each other so as to
meet in the middle. You may line the band with
buckram or stiff muslin, and ornament it with pip-
ing if you please.
Apron for a young person. — Clear muslin is the
best material. Hem round with a hem three
fourths of a nail deep, lay all round within the hem
a shawl bordering, not quite so broad as a hem.
Of course the latter must be taken off before wash-
A Morning Apron. — This may be made like the
last, but, instead of the shawl bordering, surround
the outer edge of the hem by a deep crimped frill,
a nail in breadth. The material most in use is ja-
conet or cambric muslin. The frill of lawn or cam-
bric — whichever you please.
Girl's Apron. — Use any material that is deemed
advisable. The bib is to be made to fit the wearer
in front, between the shoulders, and sloping to the
waist. The apron is to be gathered or plaited to
the band; and the shoulder-straps maybe made ol
the same material, or of riband. The bib either
plain or ornamented with tucks or folds, as may be
deemed most suitable.
Bathing Gown. — The materials employed are
124 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
various. Flannel, stuff, or Bombazine, are the most
preferable, giving free ingress to the water. The
length must be determined by the height of the
wearer, and the width at the bottom should be
about fifteen nails. It should be folded as you
would a pinafore, and sloped three and three quar-
ters nails for the shoulder. The slits for the arm-
holes must be three nails and three quarters long,
and the sleeves are to be set in plain : the length of
the latter is not material. It is useful to have a
slit of three inches in front of each. The gown is
to have a broad hem at the bottom, and to be gath-
ered into a band at the top, which is to be drawn
tight with strings ; the sleeves are to be hemmed
and sewn round the arm or wrist in a similar man-
Caps. — These are made of a great variety of pat-
terns, and the materials are as various as the pur-
poses to which the article is applied. Muslins of
various kinds, lawn, net, lace, and cotton cloth, are
all in request ; and the borders are also extremely
various, muslin, net, or lace, being those most in
common use. The shapes are so multifarious as
to preclude us from giving any specific directions.
Every lady must choose her own pattern, as best
suits the purpose she has in view. The patterns
should be cut in paper, and considerable care is re-
quisite, in cutting out, not to waste the material.
A little careful practice will soon make this depart-
ment familiar to the expert votaress of the needle.
Gentlemen's Belts. — These are worn by per-
sons who take much and violent exercise, and are
extremely useful. They are made of strong jean
or other material, and sometimes of leather and
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 125
may either be made straight or a little aslant, or
peaked. Runners of cotton are inserted to make
them more strong, and they must be furnished with
long straps of webbing at the ends, sewed on with
leather over them. The straps are about three
inches in depth.
Much diversity of opinion exists as to the colours
most to be preferred for bonnets. For young per-
sons, bonnets look well made of shaded silks ; but
for adults silks of a light and undecided colour are,
we think, most elegant. No doubt, in the choice
both of material and of colour, considerable defer-
ence must be paid to the prevailing fashion. It is
well to avoid the two extremes into which some
people are very apt to fall. The one is an entire
disregard to the prevailing taste, and the other a
servile submission to its tyrannic sway. A medi-
um course is the only sensible one, and, in this,
good sense will dictate how far to go, and where
Amid the variety of shapes for bonnets, the
straight cottage form may, in our opinion, claim
the pre-eminence : they will always, more or less,
be fashionable, being general favourites. Drawn
126 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
bonnets have been much worn, and are not likely
to be soon out of favour ; they are well adapted for
summer, and have an exceedingly neat appearance
if proper pains are taken in the construction of
them ; they have also another advantage — they
may be made of almost any material, and look well
either in silk or satin. Net is also employed for
the same purpose, and made either of white or co-
loured muslin ; they look extremely pretty. We
hope the following directions will enable any
young lady to make her own.
If the bonnet is a full-sized one, and is made of
muslin the width of common print, the required
quantity is one yard and a quarter ; and if the ma-
terial be silk or satin, two yards will be found ne-
cessary. The canes are bought ready prepared,
or you may use whalebone for the slots if you pre-
fer it : it has one advantage, that is, it is not so lia-
ble to break as the canes are ; of course, it is much
dearer. Having got all the requisite articles, you
proceed to make the bonnet as follows : First,
make a foundation, either of willow or pasteboard,
the shape you design the article to assume when
finished, and you may make the crown and front
of the bonnet all in one, or in separate pieces,
whichever you think best. We shall first give di-
rections for making a drawn bonnet, with the front
and crown in one. This method is thus executed :
It may be proper to premise, that in making a
drawn bonnet with the crown and front in one
piece, you find yourself obliged to join a piece of
the material to the crown as neatly as possible, as
neither silk nor satin is of a sufficient width, unless
the bonnet be very small. You are first to take
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 127
one yard and a quarter of the silk, and doubling it
lengthwise, round off the corners by the pattern
previously made ; then slit the silk down the mid-
dle, and run it together at the outer edge. Then
turn it so as to have the running on the inside.
Next make the places to receive the canes. You
are to make four or five of these runners close to
the edge, all round, in order to give it sufficient
strength, and just wide enough to admit the canes.
Above these the other runners are to be made half
an inch distant from each other, and with a small
hole to admit the canes ; when the latter have
been put in, these holes are to be sewed up. The
runners are to be made with sewing silk, which is
not to be cut off, but left, as by its means you can
the more easily draw the bonnet to the proper
shape. Continue these runners until you have
completed the whole front, and then proceed to
make the crown thus ; Make runners the same dis-
tance as in the front, and the same number close
at the top as you made in the edge. Having fin-
ished all the runners, measure the proper length
of the canes by the pattern, cut them off, and in-
sert them ; you must also insert a wire of sufficient
strength in the place of the second cane from the
edge. You are then to draw up the silk both of
the front and the crown to its proper size, by means
of the silk ends you left to the runners, and fasten
them as neatly and securely as possible. What is
called the head-lining, is a piece of silk or muslin,
neatly hemmed, and of the same depth as the
crown, which, having inserted, you cut the cur-
tain from the silk, three quarters of a yard in
length, and half a quarter deep ; this curtain is to be
128 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
finished by a narrow slip cut on the cross, sewn
on to it, turned over, and hemmed neatly down on
the under side. The curtain is cut crosswise of
the silk. In preference to the narrow slip, some
persons put a cord round the edge of the curtain,
which must have a runner and cane at the top, on
which you draw it to the size required. The bon-
net is now complete, and can be trimmed as taste
and fancy may direct.
Another method of making this kind of bonnets
is to have the front and crown separate. In this
case, the front is made in the same manner as in
the former example in all respects. The same
^ngth of material is required, which is to be doub-
led and cut in the same manner. For the crown
you make a foundation of willow or stiff muslin,
and you must so make the round patch at the top
as that it will stand half an inch above the edge.
This top piece is to be covered with plain silk, and
before you cover the sides of the crown you must
sew it on to the front; you need not have the
crown double silk, as an inferior material for the
lining is quite sufficient. You make runners for
the crown, and prepare the curtain as before di-
Bonnets of this kind, when formed all in one
piece, are best made of muslin or of net, and they
are especially light and agreeable in the sultry
days of summer.
Bonnets of various shapes are made of plain and
figured silk or satin, and must in all cases be form-
ed upon a stiff foundation. The best and most
economical way is to purchase a foundation of the
shape required, which is to be found in the differ-
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 129
ent millinery establishments. Having procured
one to your mind, proceed as follows : Detach the
crown from the front, and shape the material by
the pattern, tack the lining and the outside to the
front and cord, or otherwise secure the edges.
Then make the crown, covering the top first ; then
put on it the piece of the material that is to go
round, in a proper manner, and secure it at the
top by a single or double row of cord, fit it as
tightly as possible to the frame you had before pre-
pared, and fasten it on at the back. You then
turn in the edges and set it on the front. The edge
of the crown is to be outermost, or over that of
the front. You put in the head lining and attach
the curtain as in the former examples, and trim it
as you choose.
Bonnets for children are, for the most part, made
in the same manner, and of the same materials.
An acquaintance with the directions here given
will soon enable any one to make a bonnet of al-
most any shape. The principles are the same in
all, and details cannot be learned from books —
the^can only be the result of observation and ex-
Mourning bonnets are made of black silk and
trimmed with crape, or, if for deeper mourning,
covered with crape. In trimming mourning bon-
nets, the crape, bow, and strings, are generally
broad hemmed, the double hem being from half an
inch to one inch broad. For very deep mourning,
the front of the bonnet has a fall or veiling of
crape, half a yard deep and a yard and a half long,
having a broad hem at the lower edge. The up-
per edge, being drawn up to the size of the front,
130 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
is either inserted between the covering and the
lining, or is set in along the upper ed^e r^d cover-
ed with a fold of crape.
Collars and Capes. — These are so numerous
and various, both in their shapes and materials,
that to give particular examples in a hand-book
is impossible. The general principles in all are
the same ; they are worn as a finish to the dress,
and should be made to sit as neatly upon the neck
and shoulders as possible. Velvet, silk, net, lace,
and various kinds of muslin, are the materials em-
ployed ; they are made plain, and with worked
edges, square-cornered, or in a semi-circular form,
as best suits the taste of the wearer, and the pur-
pose they are intended to answer. They are some-
times made with a small collar to turn down upon
a larger one ; neat ones are made of clear muslin,
with a border of braid laid on in various tasteful
devices. The widow's collar is made of book-mus-
lin, with a broad hem at the edge, and over this is
placed black crape. The cuffs, generally from five
to seven inches deep, are made the same way and
of the same materials. Collars for slighter mourn-
ing are made of muslin, crape, or net.
Turbans — The foundation of a turban is usually
made of slight buckram or stiff muslin, cut so as
to form a broad band for going round the head,
with a peak or point to rise above the forehead.
This band has a chip and thin wire at the upper
and lower edges, and is lined with persian or sar-
cenet. The material of which the turban is made
(being crape, tulle, or gauze — frequently a gauze
handkerchief) is then pinned on according to your
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 131
pattern or your taste, with a few occasional stitch-
es. As turbans are rarely trimmed, they should
be neatly put together in every part. On all sides
they should be finished so as to bear the eye.
To make a turban in the Turkish style, two
lengths of gauze, perhaps two gauze scarfs, are
twisted, one over the other, round the foundation
A piece of the gauze is left over to cover the crown,
and the ornamented ends hang down on one side.
INSTRUCTIONS IN CUTTING OUT A DRESS.
In many instances, to be able to cut out and
make up a dress, is an acquisition of no small ad-
vantage to its possessor. This useful branch of
female education is not, in our opinion, cultivated
with that care which its importance demands ; and,
in consequence, much expense is often incurred,
where the money might be applied toother impor-
tant and necessary purposes. Some people have
an idea that they can cut out a gown or other dress
merely by looking at one already made, or by an
inspection of the drawings, and in most cases very
deficient descriptions, found in books of the fash-
ions : but this is a sad mistake. No great exer-
tions are necessary in order to become capable of
132 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
practising this part of domestic economy ; but
still, its principles must be understood, and its
most simple rules impressed on the memory, be-
fore anything like accuracy, to say nothing of pro-
ficiency, can be attained.
No one will deny the importance of dress ; it is,
in fact, an index to the character ; and the female
who is utterly regardless of her appearance, may
be safely pronounced deficient in some of the more
important qualities which the term " good charac-
ter" implies. On the other hand, a regard to neat-
ness and order, held in due subordination to the
exercise of the nobler faculties, will generally be
found to stand in close connexion with an earnest
endeavour after the attainment of intellectual and
moral excellence. Thus, an attention to neatness
in dress and its judicious arrangement, so as to
be in accordance with the station and circumstan-
ces of the wearer, becomes of much more moment
than, on a superficial view of the subject, some
might be disposed to admit.
Most girls begin dress-making very early ; that
is to say, when they clothe their dolls : and very
good practice it is. When their mother gives
them a remnant of print, and they turn it about,
and measure it to ascertain whether there is
enough for a frock, and if there is not enough for
a frock, determine whether it shall be a petticoat
or a pinafore, and cut it out accordingly, — all this
is practice in dress-making. When the doll is bid-
den to lie very still to be fitted, and when she is
laid sometimes on her face, sometimes on her
back, and sometimes held with her head down-
ward, while a paper pattern of her waist is being
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 133
cut, — all this is practice in dress-making. The
practice will be all the better if the mother can
spare a minute to look on, and point out that the
front of the body may, if convenient, be cut on
the cross, but that the backs and armpieces must
be straightwise of the cotton ; and if she can just
show how far back the join of the sleeve should
go, and how the skirt should be a little taken up
in front, that it may sit well, and riot hang lower
before than behind. It will be kind in the mother,
too, not to allow bad work in a doll's dress, any
more than in her own gowns. If you have had
a mother or a schoolmistress who let you dress a
doll, and made you do it neatly, you have had as
good an introduction to your future business as
you could desire.
From making your doll's frocks, your next step
was, probably, to make your own. Your first at-
tempt, perhaps, was to run the seams of the skirt
of your cotton frock, — to run the selvage seams
with a backstick, and, in case of a gore or half-
breadth, to make a hem with the selvage over the
cut edge. If you puckered it in the least, I hope
you were made to take it out and do it again, tak-
ing care to pin the edges together at short distan-
ces the whole length, that you might not find,
when you came to the bottom, that one breadth
gave you an inch or two over the other. Some
few things about making a skirt should have been
explained to you at the beginning — things which
are true about the making of all skirts, through
every change of fashion, and whether the dress be
of the coarsest stuff or the richest satin. These
134 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
1st. Tnat you should pin or tack together the
breadths of the skirt at the top, before you begin,
so that you may not chance to put in more gores
on one side than the other (if there are gores), or
find that the hind-breadth comes to one side.
2dly. That you should, while first arranging the
breadths, look very carefully that no one breadth
is turned wrongside out, if there are two sides ;
or. if figured, with the pattern upside down.
3dly. That, as the uppermost edge takes up the
most, as your work lies over your linger, and as
the cut edge stretches more than the selvage, you
should, as before mentioned, pin from top to bot-
tom, before you begin to join them, the breadths
on which you are employed. This is the surest
way of avoiding puckering.
•ithly. That you should, as often as possible,
begin your run at the top, so that if there is any
left over, it may go off at the bottom, where it is
of the least consequence. You can do this in ev-
ery case but where you have to join a cut edge
and a selvage, and must begin at the bottom in or-
der to have the selvage uppermost.
5thly. That you must remember that gored
skirts hang lower at the bottom of the gores than
either before or behind, and that the first turning
in of the hem should be therefore laid in rather
deeper at the sides of the skirt.
Cthly. That you should make your fastenings so
good as that the dress may wear out before they
give way. This is particularly important with re-
gard to the pocket-holes and the openings behind,
which should be well secured by stitching, or a
bar at the turn. It is very trying to a lady to find
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 135
her skirt slit down behind the first time she slips
her gown over her head, or her pocket hole give
way before she has put her hand into it half a do-
With these remarks, and a proper share of at-
tention, the following instructions will remove
much of the difficulty in which the novice in the
art of dress-making finds herself involved.
First, the materials for the intended dress must
be procured, and it is advisable, whenever practi-
cable, to get them all at the same time. The ne-
cessary requisites, are the material, the lining for
the body and skirt, wadding, covering, hooks and
eyes, silk, thread, and what is called stiffening
muslin. You will require all those for a silk dress,
and most of them for those of other fabrics.
Having thus procured the required articles, pro-
ceed to cut out the dress, first measuring off the
number of breadths of the proper length for the
skirt (which is, of course, to be regulated by the
height of the wearer, and by the manner in which
it is intended to be made), and try them carefully
on one side. If tucks are to be introduced into
the skirt, a proper allowance must be made for
these, as also for the turnings both at top and bot-
tom. You next cut out the sleeves, as being the
largest parts of the garment except the skirt. In
cutting out the sleeves, you must first prepare a
pf.per pattern of the required shape ; then double
the lining, and cut it exactly the shape of the pa-
per, leaving about half an inch all round for the
turnings in. You will thus cut the sleeve linings
both together, and will avoid some labour and all
danger of making one larger than the other.
Double the silk or other material so as that both
the wrong sides may face each other, and cut the
sleeves by the lining just prepared. To secure
exactness, it is best to tack it to the material. Be
careful to lay the straight side of the pattern to
the selvage of the silk.
The sleeves being thus prepared, proceed to take
the proper measures for the front and back of the
body, by fitting a paper pattern to the shape of the
person for whom the dress is intended. The pa-
per should be thin, and you commence by folding
down the corner the length of the front, and pin-
ning it to the middle of the stay-bone. Then
spread the paper as smoothly as possible along the
bosom to the shoulder, and fold it in a plait, so as
to fit the shape exactly, and bring the paper under
the arm, making it retain its position by a pin ;
from this point you cut it off downward under the
arm, and along the waist ; the paper is then to be
rounded for the arm-hole and the shoulder, and
you must recollect to leave it large enough to ad-
mit of the turnings. In the same manner you pro-
ceed to form the back, pinning the paper down
straightly ; and leaving sufficient for the hem, you
fit it to the shoulder and under the arm, so as to
meet the front. You will thus have an exact pat-
tern of half of the body, and this is all that is
necessary, as, of course, you cut both sides, both
of the front and back, at the same time. The
linings are to be cut by the pattern, and the silk
by the linings. You must take care to cut the
front crosswise of the silk, and in two separate
pieces, which are afterward joined in the middle.
If the plait made in the pattern be very large, it
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 137
must be cut out on the silk, or the body will not
fit well to the shape 5 if small, it may be left : but
we think that, in all cases, to cut it out is the pre-
It is not generally advisable to cut out the half
of the back all in one piece, as it fits better with
pieces joined at the sides ; these are called side-
bodies ; and this method should always be adopt-
ed, unless the lady has a very flat back : in that
case, it is best to cut the half all in one piece.
The backs must be cut straight ; and it is best to
tack the material to the lining before cutting it.
Having thus prepared the several parts, begin to
make the garment, by running or seaming the
breadths of the skirt together ; and be sure that it
is made full : a narrow or straight skirt is now
completely, and very properly, exploded. Run
the seams as evenly as possible, fastening the ends
to your knee, or to a pincushion screwed to the
work-table, to hold them firmly. Run the lining
together in a similar manner, and fasten each of
the outside seams to a corresponding one in it ;
after which turn the edges at the top down on the
inside, and sew them firmly together. Between
the lining and the silk it is usual to introduce
some kind of material, as stiffened muslin or wad-
ding, to hold the bottom of the dress in its proper
place. This is fastened to the lining, and the silk
is hemmed down upon it. Care must be taken
that no stitches appear on the right side. An
opening in one of the seams must be left for the
pocket-hole, which must not exceed one quarter
of a yard in length. You run the silk and the
lining together, as at the top, and make a plait
138 .MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
which is to be folded over on the right side ; this
is secured at the bottom, and conceals the open-
ing. Having thus completed the skirt, to wnich
flounces may be added, or into which tucks may-
be introduced, if deemed advisable (they seldom
are in silk dresses,) you proceed to make the
sleeves, running up a cord on one side of the silk
or other material, and folding both the silk and the
lining the same way, you stitch them together,
and leave an opening at the wrist ; you then turn
the sleeve, and the edges being on the inside are
not seen. The sleeve being thus seamed up, it is,
if full, to be gathered, or done in small plaits at
the bottom, to the size of the wrist. The gathers,
or plaits, are set into a narrow band, lined, and you
cord as you please, or as is most in accordance
with the prevailing fashion. You next put on the
trimmings at the top of the sleeve, and then set it
into the arm-hole with small plaits. Some put on
the trimmings after the sleeve has been set on to
the body ; but it is a most incorrect and inconve-
The next thing to be done is to put the several
parts of the body or waist together. This should
be done slightly, and the body tried on, in order
that the fit may be made as perfect as possible.
When this is done, sew the parts firmly together,
and put a cord over all the joinings except those
under the arms. Fasten the plaits down on the
fronts, hem the parts which require it, cut the
proper shape round the neck, and see that the arm-
holes are so made as to be easy and agreeable.
Then hem the back, stitch the dress up the front
as firmly as you can, and do the same at the shoul-
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 139
ders, the side-bodies, and under the arms j after
which you must cut a cord or band at the waist,
and also insert a cord round the neck. This cord-
ing of the neck and waist require much care and
attention; for if not done properly, the appear-
ance of the dress will be spoiled. In case you
prefer a band to a cord at the waist, it must be
lined, and the lining put on first, and afterward
covered with the material of which the dress is
composed. If there be any trimming on the body,
it must be put on before the sleeves are set in. A
cord is to be set round the arm-holes as neatly as
This body being now finished, you have only to
set it on to the skirt, which is to be doubled more
in front than at the back, in order to form the
slope. You gather the part not plaited, and join
it to the body. In setting on the back, it is best
not to gather it, but to fold each gather as you pro-
ceed : this secures an evenness not otherwise
easily to be obtained. The depth of the slope
varies, and no certain rule can be given, except
that in all cases the skirt must be a little shorter
before than behind ; otherwise much inconve-
nience will be found in walking, especially where
it is the fashion to wear the dress of a considera-
It is often deemed desirable to have a cape to
the dress of the same material. This is often
found to be a great convenience ; and no great art,
though a proper degree of attention is required
m making it. The lining is to be tacked to the
silk or stuff, and the cape cut out by a paper pat-
tern the size and shape required. Before taking
out the tacking thread, a cord should be run in at
the edges, and these latter are to be turned, and
the lining sewed down firmly upon them. You
now take out the thread, and ornament or leave
the cape plain, just as you please. In making
flounces, you must remember that they must in all
cases be cut on the cross, otherwise they will not
hang with that degree of exactness and freedom
which is desirable. They are to be run on a cord
at the top, the size of the skirt, and gathered.
They should also be corded at the lower edges.
Sometimes a casing is made at the top of the
flounce, and the cord run in. This is much to be
preferred to the common method.
Tucks, with or without open work between
them, have an exceedingly neat appearance, and
never look out of fashion. They are especially
proper in black and white dresses ; and when they
are put on, it is essential that they should be cut
straightwise of the material. To cut them cross-
wise is decidedly improper. It is sometimes good
economy to make the sleeves of a dress in two
separate parts each, so that the lower portion can
be taken off at pleasure. For an evening dress
this is found very convenient, as the under part
will come off at the elbow, and a ruffle of lace can
be substituted in its place, which gives a short
sleeve a neat and finished appearance.
The directions here given apply principally to
dresses made of stuff or silk, fn those made of
muslin or calico some slight variations occur
These latter are not always lined ; indeed, cotton
prints for summer wear are seldom done so ; but
the lining of muslin dresses is becoming much
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 141
more common than it was some years since, expe
rience having shown that the dress when line<\
through sits much neater upon the person than h
does without. In cases where linings are omit-
ted, a piece of some strong material must be run
in at the bottom o the skirt, and firmly held down
with the hem. But we think a thin lining, even
for the light dresses worn in summer, is to be pre-
ferred. It is a good plan to set a cord round the
bottoms of dresses ; they soon wear, but the cord
is a great advantage, as when it get unsightly, a
new one can with little trouble be put in its place,
and the dress remains the same length as before.
Frocks for both boys and girls are generally
made with the bodies full, but the pattern must be
cut plain in paper, the same as in the garments
intended for persons of more mature age. The
bodies of children's frocks are often made without
linings, but, as a general rule, we think the prac-
tice is exceptionable. The clothing of young per-
sons should always be made so as to support the
frame, without cramping its growth, or impeding
its muscular action by unnecessary and injudicious
pressure. The skirts of frocks intended for little
boys are often cut crosswise, and look pretty and
becoming. In dresses made of figured silk, or
muslin, or cotton prints (for children,) the tucks
should always be cut crosswise. This is especi-
ally to be attended to in plaid patterns.
Frocks for girls are by some persons directed
to be made to come high up to the neck. This is
in our opinion, a practice that should be avoided.
The body, on the contrary, should be rather low,
and made to lie firmly upon the projecting part of
142 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING,
the shoulder, but not to fall off upon the upper
arm : this is almost as unsightly as the high body
we disapprove of. The graceful form of the bust,
one of the most exquisite productions of creative
skill, should by no means be concealed ; a neck-
lace is its proper adornment ; and should it be said
that the clothing them up to the neck is necessary
on the score of health, nothing can be farther from
the truth. In fact, a moderate exposure to the
action of the sun and air is essential to the posses-
sion of good health.
Mantelet. — In the making of this useful and fa-
vourite article of ladies' attire, there is much va-
riety in the materials employed. They are some-
times made of shawling, but more commonly of
silk, satin, cloth, velvet, and merino. The mante-
let comes down nearly to the knee, and is lined
either with silk or muslin, and occasionally with
glazed cotton cloth. The shape is that of the cape
of a cloak, and should be cut by a pattern to insure
accuracy ; five breadths of the material will be re-
quired, and the neck is hollowed to make it fit
comfortably ; it can be either gathered into a band
or set on to a collar. In the latter case, the collar
must be made to turn over. You trim the mante-
let in any manner you think the most becoming,
with velvet, satin, or fur ; or it may be trimmed
with either fringe or lace. It is neat, and very
convenient for a lady, either for .a short walk, or
as a part of a summer's evening dress ; in the lat-
ter case, the material and lining should be as light
Ladies' Silk Cloak. — Choose a silk that is of a
colour not liable to fade, of which six breadths
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 143
are required, and the width of the cloak is five
breadths ; the length is, of course, made accord-
ing to the height of the person who is to wear it.
You cut the shoulder pieces first in paper, taking
a cloak already made for your guide, and having
fitted them exactly to the person, lay the paper
upon the lining, and cut it out ; the silk is cut out
by the lining ; and be careful to leave sufficient for
the turnings in. Prepare the collar in the same
way, pointed at the corners and slanting toward
the neck ; the collar is hollowed out at the top
from the front corners, to a sufficient depth be-
hind, to insure its falling gracefully over the
shoulders and back. It is lined with silk, between
which and the outside, stiff muslin is to be intro-
duced. The shoulder pieces are to have flannel
or wadding between the silk lining and the mate-
rial. Those who have no cloak at hand from
which to take a pattern for the shoulder pieces,
may obtain one by the following simple method :
Take a piece of thin paper, and cut it in the shape
of a round collar ; hollow it out at the top, until it
will lie over the shoulders perfectly straight and
The various parts being thus ready, proceed to
make up the cloak. First the breadths are to be
seamed together, so as to show the stitches as lit-
tle as may be. One breadth is to be thrown to
the back, and at one nail and a half from the seam
cut the arm-holes three and a quarter nails long,
and two and a quarter below the shoulder pieces,
which are to be next made by running the materi-
al and the lining together, with the wadding be-
tween them on the wrong side, and then turning
them. You next double the three back breadths,
and hollow them so as to fit the shoulder pieces ;
into which the whole is afterward to be set in as
full and even as possible, the two front breadths
reaching to the shoulder, and all the rest being
set on to the back. At the distance of four nails
from the shoulder pieces, plait in the back so as to
fit the waist ; and a band, of a sufficient length to
encircle the person, is laid upon the folds behind,
and drawn to the inside through two apertures cut
on each side, and worked as button-holes ; this
band is fastened by buttons or hooks in front.
Sometimes a riband-case is made on the inside,
and strings run through it, which answers the same
end. You next make the collar in the same man-
ner as you prepared the shoulder-pieces, and set
it on to the neck. These cloaks are trimmed in
various ways. The arm-holes, when not in use,
are concealed by pieces of the silk, three and a
quarter nails in length, and half a nail in breadth,
which are lined and set on to one side. They
must have a row of piping set on all round. You
may trim the fronts with a hem, one nail and three
quarters deep, of velvet, cut crosswise; or, if you
prefer it, you can substitute an edging of fur ; but
we think that velvet looks the most handsome and
becoming. The cloak is sewed round the neck
with silk cord of the same colour, and finished
with tassels, or an ornamental clasp is adopted ;
either is suitable, and may be used at pleasure.
These cloaks are very elegant, when properly
made. Sometimes they are furnished with capes
of the same material, which are generally loose,
and are found very convenient. They maybe worn
PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 145
as mantelets, without the cloak, and are made as
Take a sheet of paper as large as you intend
half the cape to be, and round off the corners so
as to form it into a perfect circle j double this, and
from the straight side cut a small half round for
the neck ; open the pattern, and from the front of
the inner half circle double one side in a slanting
direction, for the opening in front. No precise
rule can be given ; but the paper must be so fitted
to the person that the fronts may meet when the
cape is worn. Having got your pattern correct,
cut out the lining by it, and lastly the silk for the
cape ; both, but especially the outside, must be
cut crosswise. The lining and silk are to be neatly
run together and then turned, and the back seam
seamed up. The trimming of the cape must be
the same as that of the cloak.
A Boy's Cape or Cloak. — This may be made oi
Scotch plaid or any other suitable material You
cut an entire circle, as large as you design the
cloak to be ; in the centre of this, cut a small aper-
ture, about twice the size of that required for the
neck, and cut thence to the edge on one side :
this makes the opening for the front. Gather the
neck into a band, hem the fronts on the outer edge,
and the cloak is complete.
Dressing Table Covers. — These may be made of
any material that is proper for the purpose. Fine
diaper generally, but sometimes dimity and muslin
are employed, or the table is covered with a kind
of Marseilles quilting, which is prepared expressly
for the purpose. Sometimes the covers are mere-
ly hemmed round, but they look much neater if
fringed, or bordered with a moderately full frill.
Sometimes a worked border is set on. All de-
pends upon taste and fancy A neat and genteel
appearance, in accordance with the furniture of
the apartment, should be especially regarded.
Pincushion Covers. — A large pincushion, having
two covers belonging to it, should belong to each
toilet table. The covers are merely a bag into
which the cushion is slipped. They may be eith-
er worked or plain, and should have small tassels
at each corner, "and a frill or fringe all round.
Dinner Napkins. — These are of various materi-
als : if cut from the piece, they must be hemmed
at the ends the same as table-cloths. Large and
small tray napkins, and knife-box cloths, are made
in the same manner. The hemming of all these
should be extremely neat. It is a pretty and light
employment for very young ladies ; and in this
way habits of neatness and usefulness may be form-
ed, which will be found vesy beneficial in after
THE NEWEST AND MOST FASHIONABLE
TO THE LADIES OF AMERICA.
It is customary amongst the German ladies to Liave
at hand some light piece of work, "with which they can
at any time be employed. When passing the evening
in one another's society, even when passing a morning
visit, or after dinner at a dinner party, or while sipping
coffee, or taking ices at the public gardens, they con-
sider their knitting or netting needles an indispensable
accompaniment. And there appears to be a charm in
the occupation that promotes rather than impedes con-
Our American ladies will doubtless find the custom one
worthy of imitation. Many an hour which would pass
tediously if they were forced to find topics of conversa-
tion, may be whiled pleasantly and profitably away, by
the assistance of some agreeable employment, which
interests without engrossing the attention. The facility
of carrying about almost all species of knitting and net-
ting render them peculiarly well adapted to this pur-
In the following little work, all the different species
of knitting, netting, and crotchet, are so carefully ex-
plained, that a person totally unacquainted with their
mysteries, may become a proficient with very slight
pains. The most useful kinds of knitting, as well as
the more fanciful, have been carefully inserted, and
many new stitches are now offered to the ladies of
America, with which we flatter ourselves, they have
never before been acquainted.
13 * (149)
Explanation of the Terms used in Knitting
A turn means two rows.
To turn means to change from plain to purled, or the
A ridge is formed by two rows when knitting with only-
A loop stitch, sometimes called making a stitch, some-
times lapping over the thread, is formed by passing the
thread before the needle, and in knitting the next
stitch, letting it take its usual place.
To increase in knitting a Quilt, care should always be
taken to increase by knitting twice through the last
stitch, which is done by knitting a stitch, and then,
without taking out the needle, knitting a second at
To fasten on in knitting. It is a secure fastening to
lap the two ends contrary-wise to each other, and knit
a few stitches with them both.
To narrow or decrease is to make small, to lessen, as in
shaping a stocking.
Ribbed stitch, purl stitch, turned or seam stitch, are all
terms having the same meaning. A turned stitch is
made by bringing the cotton before the needle, and
instead of putting the needle over the upper cotton,
it is put under.
To slip, take off, or pass a stitch, is to change it from
one needle to another without knitting it.
To take under, means to pass the right-hand needle
through the stitch on the left-hand one, so as still to
keep the same side cf the stitch towards you.
152 TERMS USED IN KNITTING.
Welts are the rounds of ribbed stitches done at the top
of stockings, to prevent their rolling up.
Cast off, or slip and hind, means to end your work in
the following manner ; knit 2 stitches, pass the first
over the second, and continue the same until you
have but one left, which is finished by passing yDur
cotton through it.
To decrease or narrow, is to lessen the number of stitch-
es by knitting 2 taken together.
To increase, or make a double stitch, is to knit one stitch
in the usual way, then, without slipping out the left-
hand needle, to pass the thread forward and knit a
second stitch, putting the needle under the stitch.
The thread must be put back when the stitch is fin-
Hang on means cast on. \
Bring the thread forward means to pass it between the
needles towards you.
Cast over is a term I believe sometimes used by knitters
to signify, bring the cotton forward. I have only used
it to express, bring the cotton over the needle, quitt
Round the needle means the same as the last term.
Reversed means quite round the needle, the cotton being
passed over the needle, and then carried back to its
Together means knit 2 stitches' in 1.
Set, or Tuft, the bunches of cotton used in making some
of the fringes.
To widen means to increase.
The netting meshes are numbered from the knitting
needle gauge, as I am not aware there is any other rule
KNITTING, NETTING, AND CROTCHET WORK.
FOUR BEAUTIFUL PATTERNS
Of Lace Edgings for Collars, Dresses, fyc.
By means of the following directions every lady
can provide herself with lace edgings of the most
durable kinds, and without either much expense or
trouble. These laces, when knit with fine thread
and small needles, are exceedingly pretty. When
they are intended for common wear, or to trim the
bottom of petticoats, they should be knit with nee-
dles of the ordinary size, and coarse cotton They
wash well, and wear a long time. After a little
practice, a great facility in knitting them is acquir-
ed, and the work progresses with a rapidity which
young beginners are apt to despair of obtaining.
Cast on 8 stitches. — 1st row, — take off the first
stitch without knitting it, knit plain the 2 next, lap
in the thread once, take offl stitch, knit 1, slip and
bind, knit 1, lap in the thread twice, knit 1, lap
in the thread twice, knit 1.
2nd row — knit plain 2 stitches, seam 1 and put
154 KNITTING, NETTING,
back your thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your
thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread,
3rd row, — take off the first stitch, knit 2, lap in
the thread, take off 1, knit 1, slip and bind, knit the
4th row — knit the two first, slip and bind, knit
and slip and bind until only 7 stitches are on the
left hand needle and 1 on the other, knit 3, seam 1
and put back your thread, knit the rest.
Cast on 11 stitches. — 1st row, — take off the first
stitch, knit 2, lap in the thread, take off 1, knit 1,
slip and bind, knit 1, lap in the thread, take oft
1, knit 1, slip and bind, knit 1, lap in thread twice,
knit 1, lap in the thread twice, knit 1.
2nd row, — knit 2, seam 1 and put back your
thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread,
knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread, knit 2,
seam 1 and put back your thread, knit 3.
3rd row, — take off 1, knit 2, lap in the thread,
take off 1, knit 1, slip and bind, knit 1, lap in the
thread, take off 1, knit 1, slip and bind, knit the rest
4th row, — knit 2, slip and bind, knit and slip and
bind until only 10 stitches are on the left hand nee-
dle and 1 on the other, knit 3, seam 1 and put back
your thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your
thread, knit the rest.
Cast on 11 stitches. — 1st row, — knit 3, make 1,
narrow 1, knit 1, make 1, narrow 1, make 2, nar-
row 1, knit 1.
2nd row, — knit 3, seam 1, and put back your
AND CROTCHET WORK. 155
thread, knit 2, make 1, narrow 1, knit 1, make 1,
narrow 1, knit 1.
3rd row, — knit 3, make 1, narrow 1, knit 1, make
1, narrow 1, knit 4.
4th row, — knit 2, slip and bind, knit 4, make 1,
narrow 1, knit 1, make 1, narrow 1, knit 1.
Cast on 7 stitches. — 1st row, — take off 1 stiteh,
knit 2, lap in the thread once, narrow 1, lap in the
thread twice, narrow 1.
2nd row, — make 1 stitch, knit 2, seam 1, put
back your thread, knit 1, lap in the thread once,
narrow 1, knit 2.
3rd row, — take off 1, knit 2, lap in the thread
once, narrow 1, lap in the thread twice, narrow 1,
lap in the thread twice, narrow ] .
4th row — make 1, knit 2, seam 1 and put back
your thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread,
knit 1, lap in the thread once, narrow 1, knit 2.«
5th row, — take off 1, knit 2, lap in the thread
once, narrow 1, knit 7.
6th row, — knit 8, lap in the thread once, narrow
1, knit 2.
7th row, — take ofF 1, knit 2, lap in the thread
once, narrow 1, lap in the thread twice, narrow 1,
lap in the thread twice, narrow, lap in the thread
twice, narrow 1, knit 1.
8th row, — knit 3, seam 1 and put back your
thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread,
knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread, knit 1, lap
in the thread once, narrow 1, knit 2.
9th row, — take off 1, knit 2, lap in the thread
once, narrow 1, knit 10.
156 KNITTING, NETTING,
10th row, — knit and slip and bind 8, leaving 6
on the other needle, then knit 2, lap in the thread
once, narrow 1, knit 2.
A baby's sock.
With 2 colors done in stripes and double German
Cast on 26 stitches, knit a plain row with the
first color : fasten on the second, knit a row, adding
a stitch at the end for the heel, and back again ;
then take the first color, knit a row adding another
stitch and back again ; continue the same alternate-
ly, but without adding any more stitches for the heel
until there are 6 ridges of each color, then with the
first knit a row, and in coming back cast off 15
stitches, beginning from the end at which you ad-
ded two stitches, knit the 13 that are left ; with the
second color knit a row and back again, then knit
a row and back again with the first, and continue
the same until you have four ridges of the second
and three of the first color : then with the first color
knit the 13 stitches, add 15 and knit back again.
Finish this side like the other, only decreasing for
the heel. It is then sewed up in the shape of a
shoe. Take four needles, pick up the 36 stitches
round the instep, putting 12 on each of three nee-
dles, and knit two rounds plain, then pass the
lambs'-wool forward (so as to form a stitch), slip a
stitch and knit 2 plain, then pull the slipped stitch
over the 2 knitted ones, pass the lambs'-wool for-
P c "
-. (D 3
O 1 P-
AND CROTCHET WORK. 157
"ward, and repeat this for one round, continue plain
knitting for an inch ; after that rib 4 rows, knit 4,
rib 4, knit 2, and cast off.
baby's socks. 1st size.
Two ivory needles No. 12, and 3->ply fleecy, are re-
Cast on 24 stitches ; knit 2 plain rows, add one
stitch ; knit 2 more rows and add another stitch
which forms the heel ; then continue knitting until
you can count 10 ridges ; cast off 14 stitches begin-
ning from where you added on for the heel : knit 6
more ridges, add on 14 stitches, and make this side
to match with the other, decreasing for the heel.
Pick up the 14 loops on each side and the six in
the middle, and put them all on one needle : knit a
plain row, then a row of holes for the ribbon to
pass through, which is done in this manner : — begin
with the lambs'-wool forward, slip a stitch, knit the
next, and pass the slipped stitch over the knitted
one ; after this row is finished knit 8 ridges.
In German Wool, with four needles No. 19.
Cast on 53 stitches (the width round). Knit 32
rounds in ribs of one stitch ; the seam is made by
ribbing* the middle stitch of one needle everv other
round. Knit 3 rounds plain knitting, and begin the
158 KNITTING, NETTING,
thumb by increasing one stitch in the middle oppo-
site the seam. Make a seam-stitch on each side of
it. Every third row, increase 2 stitches ivithin the
seam-stitches of the thumb, until it has 21 stitches ;
knit the thumb round, making a seam up from
where it leaves the hand ; knit 14 rounds, then de-
crease every 3rd stitch in every 3rd round until on-
ly 6 stitches are left, cast them off together. To
finish the hand, take up 3 stitches at the bottom of
the thumb to prevent a hole, and knit round ; rr ake
a seam to correspond with that which is on the oth-
er side, and every 3rd round decrease one stitch on
each side the seam where the thumb joins until on-
ly 4S are left. Knit 12 rounds ; then decrease one
stitch on\each v side of each seam, twice, every 3rd
round, twice, every 2nd, afterwards decrease every
round until 16 stitches are left, which cast off to-
CHILD'S SOCK, TO BE WORN WITH SHOES
In German Wool, with four needles Mo. 21.
Cast on 65 stitches, 22 on two needles and 21 on
the third (turn the 11th on this needle every other
round for the seam)"; when you have done 60 turn-
ed stitches (that is 120 rounds), divide 33 stitch-
es for the heel (the middle stitch is the seam-stitch),
and 32 for the instep ; knit the stitches for the heel
until you have 20 turns (the back rows are ribbed)
for the length of the heel ; divide the stitches and
ioin it up. Take up 20 stitches on each side of the
AND CROTCHET WORK. 159
neel, make a seam on each side of the instep, and
take up a stitch in the loop before the first and after
the last stitch on the instep needle (this is to pre-
vent there being holes in the corners). Then nar-
row every second round on the heel side of the
seams, until you have the same number of stitches
as on the instep. Knit 20 rounds and narrow for
the toe, which is done by taking two stitches to-
gether on each side the seams ; repeat this twice,
knitting 3 rounds between, again, knitting two
rounds between, then twice, knitting one round,
then in every round until you have 14 stitches,
which divide and cast off.
KNEE CAPS IN LAMBS'-WOOL.
Very coarse needles. +
Begin with 36 stitches ; knit 8 or 12 rows, ac-
cording to the size wished for ; knit 15 stitches,
make a stitch, knit 6, make a stitch, knit the rest.
Add 2 in the same manner every other row until
you have 52 on the needle. Knit 12 or 16 rows,
and decrease in the same proportion in which you
augmented. Sew the ends together.
EVENING CARRIAGE SHOES.
They should be made in 2 colors, for instance, broum
and blue. Two needles only are required.
Cast on 60 stitches of the brown lambs'- wool ;
160 KNITTING, NETTING,
knit a plain row ; begin the next row with knitting
4 stitches of blue, slip 2 brown stitches, knit 4 blue,
and so on to the end of the row, which will end
with 2 slipped stitches ; slip them again next row,
rib the blue and slip the brown stitches to the end
of the row : the next row is plain knitting, still
slipping the brown stitches ; the 4th row is ribbed
back slipping the brown stitches as before. Now
knit two plain rows with the brown lambs'-wool,
knitting the slipped stitches ; then rib 2 rows still
with the brown. Knit 1 blue stitch, slip 2 brown,
knit 4 blue, and so on to the end of the row. This
is the same as the 2nd row, except that the two
brown slipped stitches are to be over the centre of
the four blue ones ; this you must be careful to ob-
serve, so that four of the blue squares form a dia-
mond. All the slipped stitches are taken under,
so as not to twist them.
When you think the shoe is long enough cast off.
Double it lengthways, and sew up the ends : put a
bit of fringe round it, run in a string, and although
it will look like an oblong square, if you put it on,
you will find it fit very well.
This pattern is pretty for sofa cushions, quilts,
Needles No. 17, six needles required.
Cast 24 stitches on each of 3 needles, with the 4th
knit 3 stitches and rib 3 alternately, until you have
AND CROTCHET WORK. 161
done about an inch in depth (or, if you prefer it,
you can rib the mitten all through) ; knit plain
rather more than another inch, and begin increas-
ino- for the thumb by making a stitch in the middle
of a row ; this stitch is made by taking up a stitch
between two stitches ; knit a plain round ; take up
a stitch before the stitch you made, and another af-
ter it ; continue making two stitches every other
round until you have 25 stitches for the thumb ;
knit round until you come to the thumb ; take the
12 stitches on each side of the thumb on the other 2
needles, and with two additional needles divide the
stitches for the thumb into three ; join up the thumb
by knitting round, and cast off when it is sufficient-
ly long ; then begin knitting the mitten again, ta-
king up a few stitches (about 7) at the bottom of
the thumb, to prevent' there being a hole there ; it
likewise makes the mitten sit better ; decrease
these stitches until you have the original number
left ; knit about 10 rounds, and begin ribbing in
threes again : when the mitten is long enough, cast
These mittens made in fine lambs'-wool are very
warm to wear over gloves in winter.
It may be observed, that all mittens are made on
the same plan, except that in fancy knitting, it is
generally necessary to make double stitches for the
increase, instead of taking them up between the
162 KNITTING, NETTING,
A quarter of an ounce of silk is required : it should
be even and free from knots.
Net 60 stitches on a round foundation; net 24
rounds : at the 25th round net 22 stitches, net 2 in
the 22nd stitch, net 6 plain stitches, and at the 7th
add a second stitch.
The next round is plain netting. Add 2 stitches
every other round, until you have 72 rounds ; then
separate the stitches you have added with the 6 in
the middle (32 in number) for the thumb ; net the
first and last together, and diminish gradually until
you think it small enough ; make it as long as you
please, and cut off your silk : tie the silk on neatly
at the join of the thumb to continue your mitten,
add 4 stitches, 2 on each side of the join, and make
it as long as you think necessary. To finish it,
either work an edge, or sew on a narrow lace the
color of the mitten, and work the back by darning
in the diamonds, formed by the netting, for the fin-
Four needles are required, JVb. 14.
Cast on each of 3 needles 18 or 24 stitches, ac-
cording to the size you want your muffatee, and
with the fourth needle knit 3 and rib 3 stitches al-
ternately, until your muffatee is long enough.
AND CROTCHET WORK. 163
Begin as for the preceding muffatees, only with
coarser needles and fleecy. Knit 3 or 4 inches, then
begin double knitting on much coarser needles;
knit about 6 inches, and cast off. Sew up the
opening at the side. This makes a very warm
muffatee for driving in cold weather.
Four needles No. 16 are required. Five skeins of
German lambs' -wool are used for each muffatee ;
the two first and two last skeins should be alike,
and the middle one white.
Cast 24 stitches on each of 3 needles; knit 2
rounds of 3 stitches plain, and 3 ribbed alternately ;
knit 3 rounds, knitting on every needle the^r^ two
stitches and the last one plain, the intervening
stitches being knitted 3 ribbed and 3 plain alter-
nately. When you come to the next 3 rounds,
knit the first and two last stitches plain ; after that
knit 3 rounds of 3 stitches ribbed, and 3 plain al-
ternately; then 3 rounds, the first 2 and the last 1
stitches ribbed, and between knit 3 plain and 3 rib-
bed; then rib the 1st and 2 last stitches for 3
rounds : begin the whole pattern again, only knit-
ting 3 rounds instead of 2, of 3 stitches plain and
1 04 KNITTING, NETTING,
A skein of knitting cotton must be cut into 8
lengths for the fringe ; or, if 'you wish your fringe
to be very deep, cut your skein into 4 or 6. The
most convenient way is to divide these lengths into
sets containing 3 threads in each, and lay them be-
fore you : then with a ball of the same cotton, and
two steel needles, which should be rather coarse,
cast on 8 stitches, and knit 1 row plain : begin the
next row by knitting the 2 first stitches plain, bring
the cotton forward, knit 2 stitches taken together,
by this means you make a loop stitch ; take 1 of
the sets of cotton, put the ends even, double it in
half and loop it over the needle you are knitting
with, forward; knit 1 stitch, pass the set back be-
tween the needles, knit 2 stitches, bring the set for-
ward again, and knit the last stitch. The back
rows are plain knitting ; you must be careful to
take the whole head of the set with the 4th stitch,
which leaves 4 to be knitted plain, and you have 8
as at the beginning ; after finishing this row, give
the set or tuft a pull down, which puts it in its
right place, before beginning another.
Cast on 9 stitches. Slip the 1st stitch, knit the
2nd and 3rd, bring the thread forward, knit 2 to-
AND CROTCHET WORK. 165
gether, knit 1, turn the thread forward, knit 2 to-
gether, knit the last. When you have the length
you want, cast off 5 stitches, and unravel the 4
others, which form the fringe.
This fringe may be made wider by casting on 12
or 15 stitches.
Two needles only are required for this knitting.
Cast on 88 stitches, begin with the silk forward,
slip a stitch, knit a stitch, pass the 1st over the 2nd,
knit a stitch, bring the silk forward and rib the
next. When this is done, the silk will be forward ;
If the purse be required to be longer, cast on as
many stitches as are necessary, observing that it
must be a number which can be divided by four.
A STRONG PURSE.
With 2 steel needles and coarse netting silk cast
on 60 stitches, knit the first, bring the silk forward,
slip a stitch, knit the next, and pull the slipped
stitch over the knitted one, bring the silk forward
and begin again. The second row is simple knit-
166 KNITTING, NETTING,
PORCUPINE KNITTING TOR A PUE.SE.
Four fine needles, nearly 3 skeins of netting silk,
and one string of gold beads are required. Thread
some of the beads on the silk before you begin.
Cast 36 stitches on each of 3 needles, knit a plain
round ; knit 4 stitches, bring the silk forward, knit
a stitch — this is the centre stitch of the pattern —
brino - the silk forward, knit 4 stitches, slip a stitch,
taking it under, knit 2 taken together, pull the slip-
ped stitch over it, then begin knitting the 4 stitches,
&c. ; it is better at the end of each needle to knit a
stitch off the next one, as it prepares for the next
round. Continue thus for 6 rounds, increasing be-
fore and after every centre stitch, and knitting till
within 1 of where you decreased, which stitch slip,
knit the next 2 together, and pull the slipped stitch
over it. Knit a plain round. Knit another round
plain, excepting over the centre stitches, where you
are to knit a bead, bringing it through the stitch.
Knit a plain round, keeping the beads on the outside
of the purse. (This purse is knitted wrong side
outwards.) Knit to within one stitch of the bead
stitch, which slip ; knit 2 together : these 6 rounds,
increase each side of the stitch you decreased with
in the last pattern, which makes that the centre
stitch for the bead.
It is easy to count the number of rounds you
have done, at the place where you decreased.
This pattern is very pretty for a boa, knitted
with German lambs'-wool and needles No. ]5.
AtfD CROTCHET WORK. 167
Cast on 69 stitches; take off the 1st stitch, bring
the silk forward, slip a stitch, knit 2, pass the slip-
Dec] stitch over the 2 last, repeat this to the end of
the row. The back rows are ribbed.
This pattern is very pretty in two colors, chang-
ing them every 2 rows.
First row : slip a stitch, knit a stitch, pass the
first stitch over the second ; repeat this to the end
of the row. Second row : bring the silk forward
This is a very rfretty stitch for d'oyleys with a
plain border. Any even number of stitches may be
A NET PURSE IN POINTS.
Fifty stitches long and 80 rows wide, of a mid-
dle-sized silk and mesh. Net 31 stitches with one
color, and back again ; then 28, 25, 22, 19, and
Lack again to each; then with the other color be-
gin at the distance of 19 stitches, and net until you
meet the side already done : pass the needle through
the stitch to connect them. Half a point is now
i lone, you reverse the number of stitches to com-
It is also very pretty if the points are made long-
168 KNITTING, NETTING,
er, say 45 stitches, decreasing by four stitches every
other row, until you leave only 5 for the other point.
CORKSCREW NETTING FOR A PURSE.
Two different colored silks are required, for instance,
brovm and blue ; 1 mesh, and 2 needles ; thread
each of the needles with one color. A round
foundation, consisting of 60 stitches, should be
Join both needles on together, net with the brown
30 stitches, then begin with the blue and net the
other 30 stitches ; net the blue silk back and con-
tinue it over 6 stitches of the brown ; now take the
needle with brown, pass it through the blue stitch,
and net till you meet the needle with blue, turn
back (still with the brown silk), and net round till
you have gone over 6 blue stitches ; net with the
blue again, passing the needle through the brown
stitch ; continue thus advancing each color 6
stitches at one side and receding at the other, till
the purse is one-third long enough, then begin the
opening, which is made by omitting to pass the silk
through the stitch at one place; the pattern you
must carry on as before, for which you will be
obliged to fasten on your silk to fill up where you
and crotchet work. 1g9
Two needles are required.
Cast on 86 stitches, knit a row of two stitches
plain and two ribbed. In the 2nd row, rib the
stitches that were plain in the first row, and knit
plain those that were ribbed. In the 3rd row, rib
the stitches that were ribbed in the last row, and
knit plain those that were knitted plain. 4th row,
rib the plain stitches and knit the ribbed ones. Re-
peat these four rows five times. 2nd pattern in the
d'oyley, continue the first pattern for 10 stitches,
then knit, putting the cotton twice round the needle
every stitch until you have only 10 left on the nee-
dle, knit them like the 10 first ; these ten stitches
on each side form the border, and are always the
same pattern knit the next three rows plain, ex-
cept the border ; then repeat the first row of this
pattern ; knit 3 rows ; the border as before. 3rd
row, begin with the cotton forward, knit two in one,
bring the cotton forward, &c, until you come to
the border again ; knit 3 plain rows, repeat these
4 rows 3 times, and begin the 2nd pattern again ;
continue these two patterns alternately, until the
d'oyley is nearly square, then finish w T ith the same
width of border as at the top.
For this knitting, your cotton and needles should
be rather fine.
N. B. Many of the patterns given as purse stitch-
es are very pretty for d'oyleys, with a border either
of plain or fancy knitting.
170 KNITTING, NETTING,
SAVE-ALL BAG. ~n^
Four coarse needles are required. This bag is so
called because it may be made with odds and ends
of netting silk, or all of one color, at pleasure.
Cast 40 stitches on each of 3 needles ; knit one
plain round ; then knit one stitch, bring the silk for-
ward, knit a stitch, thus forming a loop-stitch in
addition to the original number, knit a stitch, bring
the silk forward, and continue as before for the
whole round. Next round, knit a stitch, bring the
silk forward, knit two stitches (the loop and that
next it) together ; knit a stitch, bring the silk for-
ward, and knit two together, until the bag is long
This bag looks well with a clasp, and a tassel at
MOSS-STITCH, TO MAKE A. THICK BAG.
Two needles are required.
Moss-stitch can be done with any even number
of stitches. Take off the first stitch, pass the cotton
forward, rib a stitch, pass the cotton back, and knit
one plain, pass it forward, rib a stitch, pass it back,
and so on to the end of the row. In the second row,
rib and knit alternate stitches. It may be knitted ei-
Iher with four or t\vo needles.
AND CROTCHET WORK.
For double knitting, you may cast on any even
number of stitches ; bring the thread forward, slip a
stitch, pass the thread back, knit a stitch, putting
the thread twice round the needle. This repeated
forms the pattern.
You will find in the next row you take off the
knitted stitch. Should you prefer beginning with
a knitted stitch, pass the thread but once round the
needle in every first stitch, as this will form a firmer
This blanket is very light and warm. Two large
wooden pins are required. It takes 2 pounds and
a half of lambs' -wool to make one A feet wide,
and 5 long.
Put on 250 stitches, knit 10 simple rows ; then
begin and end each row with 6 stitches in plain
knitting ; the rest of the row is double knitting,
putting the wool twice round the pin. The border
is frequently made of a different color from the mid-
dle ; in this case the two balls of wool are passed
once round each other, so as to loop the wool every
172 KNITTING, NETTING,
A GENTLEMAN'S COMFORTER. DOUBLE KNITTING.
Two coarse steel needles are necessary, and 5 skeim
of fine knitting yarn.
Cast on 72 stitches ; knit the first stitch putting
the yarn only once round your needle, bring the
yarn forward, slip a stitch, pass the yarn back
again, knit a stitch, passing the yarn twice round
the needle : continue knitting in double knitting
with the yarn twice round the needle, until the
comforter is long enough. In the last row, before
you cast off, the yarn should be passed round the
needle only once. Small comforters to cover the
chest in riding are made in the same way.
A. COMFORTABLE COMFORTER.
Cast on 50 stitches ; knit 44 turns plain knitting,
decrease one stitch in five, until you have only 40
in the row ; knit 6 turns, then decrease again 10
stitches in the row; knit 18 turns, increase 10
stitches in the row ; knit 6 turns, increase 10 stitch-
es in the row; knit 44 turns, and cast off.
DOUBLE KNITTED SHAWL.
Begin with one stitch ; increase a stitch every
other row, which will make one side slant ; knit
plain knitting until you have 9 stitches, 7 of which
ae for the border; these are knitted in plain knit-
AND CROTCHET WORK.
.ing throughout; with the other stitches begin
double knitting, as before. When your shawl is
nearly large enough, knit a few rows of plain knit-
ting to correspond with the border on. the other
DOUBLE KNITTED SHAWL, WITH COLORED BORDER.
This shawl is knitted in precisely the same way
as the one above, except that you begin with the
color you mean to have for the border : when you
have 7 stitches, you must pass the white round it
and knit in the end. Every time you come to the
border you pass the colored and white lambs'-wool
round each other, thus looping them together.
PINCUSHION COVER. LEAF PATTERN.
This 'pattern is knitted with 4 needles No. 18.
Cast 45 stitches on each of 3 needles (15 being
required for each stripe). First round, begin with
the cotton forward, purl 2 stitches, pass the cotton
back, knit one, taking it at the back, purl 2, pass
the cotton back, slip one stitch, knit one, pull the
slipped stitch over the knitted one ; knit 6 ; bring
the cotton forward, knit one, this increases two
loop-stitches ; repeat this all round. You will find
you have increased one stitch in every 15. 2nd
round; begin with the cotton forward, purl 2
stitches, knit one, taking it at the back, purl 2, slip
one, knit one, pull the slipped stitch over the knitted
174 KNITTING, NETTING,
one, knit plain until you come to the next purled
stitches, and continue as before. In this and every
alternate round, no loop-stitches are to be made,
but the purled stripes and the decrease to be done
as before, which will reduce the stitches to the
original number. Knit these rounds alternately,
making the 2 holes (which occur in every alter-
nate round) one stitch sooner each time, t. e. knit-
ting 5, then 4, then 3, then 2, then one, instead of
six stitches as mentioned in the first round. You
will then have six rows of holes, which completes
the leaf, and you will find the holes brought to the
side of the stripe opposite to that on which they
began ; you must then begin again as at first.
Nine rounds of leaves complete a pincushion.
KNITTED KETTLE HOLDER.
In two colors; for instance, red and blue.
Cast on 36 stitches with the red yarn, knit a row,
then knit 6 stitches with the red and 6 with the
blue alternately ; when you change the color, pull
the yarn rather tight at the back of the other color,
which will make the stitches stand up in a round
when finished ; in the next row, every time you
change the color of the yarn, you must bring that
you have done with forward, and pass the other
back. When you can count 4 ridges of blue on
the. right side, make the red stitches to come over
the blue, and the blue ones over the red : the
side squares should be kept flat; when big enough
knit a row, cast off, and line it.
AND CROTCHET WORK.
Two meshes are required, one rather more than a
quarter of an inch wide, the other rather more
than three-quarters of an inch; your netting nee-
dles must be large, and your cotton rather coarse.
Begin with 350 stitches ; net 20 rows with the
small mesh ; then thread your needle with double
cotton, and net a row with the wide mesh, netting
2 stitches in every stitch. Net a row with the
small mesh, being careful to take the double stitch
as only one, net another row with the small mesh,
repeat the double stitch row with the large mesh,
and begin again.
N. B. One of the knitted fringes looks well with
Three hundred and sixty stitches wide on a large
mesh, net 12 rows ; then net 5 rows on a smaller
mesh; then 12 on the large, and so on until it is
wide enough. Sew it up and put tassels to it.
N. B. It is three yards long.
176 KNITTING, NETTING,
TREBLE DIAMOND NETTING,
Is pretty lined nith silk as a quilt, or to cover a ta~
hie. The number of stitches depends on the size
of the mesh, and the quantity required. It is al-
so very pretty for a purse, d'oyley, or fish nap-
Begin with netting 3 stitches once round the pin
or mesh, 1 twice round the pin, 3 once, 1 twice, and
so on to the end of the row ; observing to end with
3 once round the pin.
Second row ; 1 twice round the pin, 2 once round,
slip them off the pin, and take the first stitch at
full length ; net the long stitch you made the last
row, and the next stitch long too, then 2 short stitch-
es, slip them off your pin, and so on to the end of
the row. 3rd row ; 1 stitch twice round the pin, 1
stitch once ; slip them off and take the first at its
full length on again ; net the 2 next, then net 1
long, 1 short, slip it off; net the 2 next, then 1 long,
1 short, slip off, and so on to the end of the row.
4th row : 1 short stitch, 2 long, 2 short, to the end
of the row. 5th row : 1 short, 1 twice round, 3
once round the pin ; 1 twice, 3 once to the end of
the row. 6th row : 1 short, 2 long, 2 short to the
end. 7th row : 1 long, 1 short, 1 long, 1 short,
slip it off, 1 long, 1 short, 1 long, 1 short, slip it off
(the other short stitches are close to the pin). 8th
row: 3 close to the pin, 1 long, to the end; then
begin with the first row again.
* If made for a fish napkin or d'oyley, a fringe should be net*
AND CROTCHET WORK. 177
SINGLE DIAMOMD NETTING.
First row : every other stitch twice round the
pin. 2nd row : every alternate stitch is a loop-
In every other row in each alternate stitch, net
3 or 4 additional stitches, which are to be left
loose, not being caught up with the stitch they are
netted in, in netting the next row.
Four needles required.
Fifty-four stitches on large pins, turning every
every other stitch, and lessening a little gradually
towards the end.
ANOTHER NIGHT STOCKING
Cast 18 stitches on each of three needles, and
rib in threes as for a stocking, for about an inch.
Then begin double knitting, by knitting the first
stitch, pass the wool forward, and take off a stitch
from the opposite needle, pass the wool back again,
knit a stitch, putting your wool twice round the
needle ; continue in the same way, until you have
178 KNITTING, NETTING,
got all your stitches on one needle, and continue
common double knitting : cast off when the stock-
ing is long enough.
N. B. It is less troublesome if before you begin
the double knitting you get all your stitches on two
The yarn and needles should be coarse.
TO KNIT A QUILT IN STRIPES.
If a border be wished for, each stripe should be
begun with the same number of rows, first of simple
knitting; then of simple and ribbed knitting alter-
nately : the two side stripes should have a border
to correspond with that at the bottom.
TWISTED COLUMN QUILT.
Care must be taken in casting on the stitches to
have a number which can be divided by 8, without
leaving any remainder. 3 needles are required
(steel are best.) After knitting the rows for the
border, begin by knitting 8 purled and 8 plain
stitches to the end of the row : every alternate row
is plain knitting. Repeat these rows 7 times, end-
ing with a purled and plain row. The next row
forms the twist ; knit the 8 plain stitches, then take
off 4 on the third pin ; knit the 4 following stitches
and then those you have taken off; knit the 8 plain
stitches; take off 4 on the third pin, knit the 4 fol-
lowing, then those you have taken off, and repeal
AND CROTCHET WORK. 179
the same to the end of the row. Begin again. In
joining the stripes together care must be taken that
the patterns join well, and as cotton frequently
shrinks in washing, it is advisable to make youi
quilt rather larger than you wish it to be when
MOSS-STITCH FOR A QUILT.
May be made any width. Take off the first
stitch, pass the cotton forward, rib a stitch, pass the
cotton back and knit 1 plain, pass it forward, rib a
stitch, &c. to the end of the row. Every row is
exactly the same. The same stitches you knit
plain and rib in one row, you knit plain and rib in
Two steel needles No. 14 are required, and a skein oj
coral-colored narrow worsted braid.
Cast on 3 stitches ; take off the first, and knit
the other 2 in each row. Every row is exactly the
Cast on 9 stitches, take off a stitch, knit 2, cast
over and knit 2 together ; knit 1, cast over and knit
2 together j purl 1. Every row is the same
180 KNITTING, NETTING,
Two needles No. 14, and German lambs 9 -wool.
Cast on 18 stitches. Knit in double knitting
backwards and forwards until the garter #1 s long
enough. End with a point.
Two needles No. 10, 8 skeins of scarlet German
lambs'-wool and 5 of white.
Cast on 100 stitches. Knit T row ; rib 1 row,
and continue to knit and rib one row alternately
until you have done 9 rows without the casting on.
Cut off the colored and fasten on the white wool
Knit and rib one row alternately for 7 rows ; thus
ending with one plain knitted row. Purl 2 rows
with the colored wool. (These rows are both done
with the colored wool to make the joining of the
two colors neat on the right side.) Knit and rib
alternate rows until you have 9 rows of the colored.
Repeat these stripes of colored and white wool until
you have 6 of colored and 5 of white. Cast off.
Draw the ribs together, and sew on a string of
satin ribbon at each end to tie under the chin.
DOUBLE NETTING FOR A MITTEN
Begin on the round foundation of 72 or 74 stitch-
es. Mesh No. 13, and 2 netting needles threaded
Fig. 1. Jewess Cap.— This is made
of alternately b'ack and white lane,
intermingled with velvet ribands.
Large nceud and bows of silk and
velvet ribands at the side.
Fig. 2. Cap, ornamented at the
sides with tufts of narrow riband
in round loops, and over the
crown with the same riband
crossing in diamonds.
Fig. 3. Is a Cap of English embroid-
ery, in the form of a capote.
F 1 ?. 4. Is a Cap of inserting and
bouillionn6 muslin, and of Va-
lenciennes inserting, the crown
being of the former, and the face
and cape of the latter. Brides
and trimming of white moire
AND CROTCHET WORK. 181
with different colors, for instance, pink and black ;
the silk should be very fine. Fasten on both nee-
dles at once. Leave the black silk on your left
hand and net one stitch with the pink, put the nee-
dle down with your left hand,* net 1 stitch with the
black. Continue this alternate netting; throughout
the mitten, always netting the pink stitches with pink
and the black with black. When you have netted
4 rounds, net 1 round, putting the silk twice round
the mesh. Net 12 stitches and begin to increase for
the thumb by netting 2 stitches in the 13th and 14th
stitches, that is, first a pink, then a black in each ;
net 6 stitches, increase as before, finish the round
and continue to increase in the same manner over
the last increase stitches every 4th round for 5 times.
Net three rounds and join up the thumb stitches by
netting round ; decrease by taking 2 stitches as 1, if
necessary. Finish the thumb with two rounds of
the black silk on a rather finer mesh. In the 1st
round take two stitches as one.
Join on at the bottom of the thumb : net till the
mitten is nearly long enough, and finish it like the
A round netted on at the top w T ith double silk and
a mesh about half an inch wide, makes a pretty fin-
Double netting is very pretty for a purse : a mesh
of the same size as that for the mitten may be used,
but the foundation should only be 60 stitches round.
* Be very careful not to twist the two silks together : litis
you may avoid if you always observe to lay the needle you did
the last stitch with beyond that you are to take up.
182 KNITTING, NETTING,
PATTERNS FOR D'OYLEYS, BASKET, OR FISH NAPKINS,
Begin with any even number of stitches. Net 2
rows as in single diamond netting, beginning with
a stitch with the silk once round the mesh. 3rd
row : 1st stitch, put the silk twice round the mesh,
and, after passing the needle quite through the fin-
ger loop (as in simple netting), draw the stitch you
are going to net on through the loop stitch of the
last row but one, net it ; you will find the second
stitch is also through the loop, net that too — putting
the silk once round the mesh : repeat these stitches
to the end of the row. 4th row : 1st stitch twice
round the mesh, take it at full length, net the row,
every other stitch is a loop stitch. 5th row is like
the 3rd, with this exception, the 1st stitch is once
round the mesh.
Any even number of stitches. Net 2 plain rows.
3rd row : pass the silk twice round the mesh every
stitch, or take a mesh as large again as the first for
this row : net the 1st stitch, miss a stitch, net 3 ad-
ditional stitches in the next, miss a stitch, net 3
additional stitches in the next; miss a stitch, and
net additional stitches to the end. 4th row : silk
once round the mesh. Net the additional stitches
as a stitch to make up for the stitch you missed last
row. 5th row, plain netting. Begin again with
the 3d row, taking care to place the added stitches
over the missed stitch.
AND CROTCHET WORK. 183
Each repetition of the pattern requires 5 stitches :
add as many as you please for the border, which is
always netted plain. Net 3 stitches, increase 4 in
each of the 2 next stitches (this makes the 5), begin
again. 2nd row : net all the additional stitches
with the stitch between them, the other stitches are
plain netting. 3rd row, plain netting. 4th row :
2 plain stitches, 2 tufted stitches, 1 plain. 5th row
like the 2nd. 6th plain. Begin again with the 1st.
NETTED LAMBS'-WOOL SHAWL OR HANDKERCHIEF.
The middle should he one color, the border flain or
shaded ; Two ounces of white wool, and half an
ounce of colored, are required. Mesh No. 9 or 10.
Begin with 8 stitches on a round foundation, or
it looks rather neater if no foundation be used. In-
crease a stitch in every other stitch (these increased
stitches form the corners) for the 1st round ; after-
wards increase 1 stitch in every corner stitch every
round. When the shawl is large enough net the
border, still increasing in the corner stitches. Fin-
ish the shawl by netting a fringe round it, the color
of the centre.
NETTED SOFA TIDY.
Begin on a foundation of 107 stitches on a mesh
No. 8, and moderately coarse cotton. Net 1 row :
184 KNITTING, NETTING,
in the next row, instead of netting the first stitch aa
usual, draw out the mesh, and pull the cotton tight
to the side of the stitch you are netting on. Every
row is alike, and, as you diminish one stitch in each
row, of course you end in a single stitch. Cut it off
the foundation, and (to make it square) fasten the
cotton on at the 107 stitches : diminish as before,
and when the square is completed, net a fringe
TO WORK THE BACKS OF NETTED MITTENS
Pass the silk under the knot in the last row but
one, either once or twice, as you prefer : in the
next row net the 2 loops as 1 stitch.
These mils are very nice and warm to draw over
long gloves in going to evening parties. Four
needles No. 13, and German lambs'-wool are re-
quired ; the wool should be knitted in shades of
either half or a whole skein of wool.
Cast 38 stitches on one, and 19 on each of the 2
other needles. Knit a plain round. Bring the
wool forward, knit 1 stitch, repeat this twice; de-
crease, taking 2 stitches together three times ; knit
1 stitch, this is the centre stitch of the pattern, a d
is always plain knitting; decrease 3 times; in-
crease 3 times; repeat these 19 stitches all round
AND CROTCHET WORK. 185
Plain knit 3 rounds. These 4 rounds repeated form
CUFFS, PEACOCK STITCH.
Four needles No. 20, and lace thread or very fine
cotton are required.
Cast 32 stitches on each of 3 needles. Purl 3
stitches, knit 3 stitches, bring the thread forward,
knit 8 stitches, bringing the thread forward between
each, knit 2 stitches, repeat these stitches round.
2nd round : Purl 3 stitches, pass the thread back,
slip 1 stitch, knit 1 and pull the slipped stitch over
the knitted one, knit plain until within 2 stitches of
the purl, knit them taken together, repeat all round.
Repeat this last round until you have only 15
stitches between the purled stitches. Purl 3 stitches,
pass the thread back, slip 1 stitch, knit 1 and pull
the slipped stitch over the knitted one, knit 2
stitches, bring the thread forward, and knit 8
stitches bringing the thread forward between each,
knit 1 stitch, knit 2 taken together, repeat this for
the round; then begin again at the 2nd round.
When the cuff is long enough cast off and sew a
bit of lace at each edge.
1 si i KNITTING, NETTING,
Four skeins of colored lambs' -wool and 6 of white ,
a steel -pin Xo. 14, a flat wooden mesh half an
inch wide, and a foundation of 120 stitches, are
Net 2 rows of colored lambs'-wool with the
steel pin; 1 row with white lambs'-wool and the
large mesh ; then 1 row with the colored, netting
J white stitches in one, which reduces the stitches
to half the number; net another row of colored
wool ; * 1 of white, 2 of colored, &c, until there
are 7 rows of white, beside the first, with 2 rows
of colored between each. Net 2 rows of colored,
1 of white, netting 2 stitches in every colored one,
finish with 2 rows of colored.
Sew it up, double it and run in a ribbon. This
forms a very warm and pretty cuff to wear over the
Two needles Jfo. 14, 4 skeins of colored German
lambs'-wool and 4 of white.
Cast on 54 stitches; bring the wool forward,
slip a stitch, and knit 2 stitches taken together ;
repeat the same to the end of the row; every row
is the same ; knit up 1 skein of colored wool, 2 of
white, and finish the muffatee with 1 skein ot
colored wool ; sew it up.
* The white rows are netted on the wide mesh, the colored
on the small mesh.
AND CROTCHET WORK. 187
These muffatees are also very nice for ladies, to
be worn outside the sleeve in very cold weather :
they are then knitted with 3-ply fleecy, the first
part done on large needles, the centre on smaller,
and the remainder on the large needles again.
A PENCE PURSE, OR JUG.
Five needles No. 17, and 2 skeins of German
lamos'-wool of different colors are required.
Begin with the handle ; cast on 4 stitches, and
knit backwards and forwards, in common knitting,
until it is an inch and a half long ; loop 6 stitches
on the same needle, 26 on the second, and 10 on
the third (the 5th needle is not required yet). Knit
off the 1st needle, knitting 2 and ribbing 2 stitches
alternately; with the 2nd needle rib 2, knit 2, rib
2, pass the wool back, slip a stitch, knit 1, pull the
slipped stitch over the knitted one, knit the suc-
ceeding stitches plain until within 7 of the end;
then knit 2 taken together, knit 1, rib 2, knit 2 ;
on the next needle rib 2 and knit 2 alternately ;
continue to repeat this round until you have only
12 stitches on the 2nd needle, and you will find you
have made the spout. Knit 3 rounds, ribbing 2
and knitting 2 alternately ; take the other color and
knit 5 rounds in the same manner, then 3 rounds
with the first color, 5 with the second ; 1 round of
plain knitting with the first color, 3 rounds ribbed,
1 plain round, making a stitch between every 2
stitches; 3 rounds ribbed with the second color;
188 KNITTING, NETTING,
knit a plain round ; in the next 2 rounds bring the
wool forward and knit 2 stitches together. With
the first color, knit 1 plain round and 3 ribbed ; re-
peat the last 7 rounds. Now divide the stitches on
4 needles (there should be 12 on each), begin plain
knitting, decreasing 1 stitch on each needle; con-
tinue the same for 5 rounds, decreasing alternately
at the beginning, middle, and end of each needle ;
knit 3 rounds, decreasing as you think necessary to
keep it a good round shape; divide the stitches on
3 needles, knit a plain round, rib 3 rounds without
decreasing. Begin again to decrease, and continue
to do so, until you have only 3 stitches on each
needle ; fasten oft* with a worsted needle, and sew
down the handle.
LADDER STITCH BAG.
Two needles No, 12.
Cast on 50 stitches. Second row, knit and rib 2
stitches alternately ; and in the 3rd row, knit and
rib the same stitches : in the two following rows
reverse the knitting and ribbing ; continue this pat-
tern for 12 rows, and also for 10 stitches at the be-
ginning and end of each row, to form a border all
round. Plain knit 1 row (between the borders).
In the next row (after the 10 stitches), knit the 2nd
stitch, pulling it over the 1st ; knit the 1st ; knit
the 4th and 3rd, 6th and 5th ; continue the same to
the end of the row : every row is alike. Continue
this pattern until the bag is nearly long enough
AND CROTCHET WORK. 189
Add a border as at first, and make the other side to
correspond. Knit or sew up the sides, and run a
ribbon round the top.
To hold the hall when knitting.
These bags are plain netted, and the size of the
foundation must of course vary according to the size
you wish to have your bag. They are very pretty
netted with very narrow ribbon in different colors
The mesh should be rather wide; when the bag is
half deep enough, net in a ring (either brass or
whalebone) ; then net on until the bag is sufficient-
Mesh No. 17 ; foundation 72 stitches wide.
Net 4 plain rows ; net 1 row, putting the silk
twice round the mesh ; in the next row net the 2nd
stitch first (in netting it half turn it) ; then net the
1st in the same way; repeat these stitches to the
end of the row. Net 3 plain rows. Net 1 row,
putting the silk twice round the mesh ; then a row,
netting the 2nd stitch first; and so on until the
purse is wide enough.
N. B. This purse is very pretty with only 2 small
rows instead of 4, and netted in shades of different
190 KNITTING, NETTING,
Knit the 1st row (except the first and last stitch
es, which are knitted plain in every row,) taking 2
stitches together. Knit a plain row. 3rd row,
slip a stitch, bring the silk forward, pick up the
thread which is across the hole, taking care not to
twist it, and knit it with the next stitch, continue
the same to the end of the row -, the 4th row is
plain knitting. Begin again at the 1st row.
Net a plain row on a foundation the desired
length. 2nd row: net to where you wish to place
a bead, slip a bead close up to the last knot, and
net a stitch ; repeat the same wherever you wish
to place a bead, and the next row will fix these in
With the bead on the knot.
Thread a bead needle with some of your netting
silk ; net a plain row ; net to where you wish to
place a bead, thread 1 bead and slip it close to the
mesh, net the next stitch, slip the bead un Jer the
mesh close up to the last knot, and pass your nee-
dle and netting silk through the bead, which fixes it
AND CROTCHET WORK. 191
on the knot ; repeat the same wherever you wish to
place a bead. This netting may be done either
round or open.
For a Quilt Border,
Cast on 57 stitches, 10 on each side are for the
border, and are always plain knitting. Knit the
border, knit 1 stitch, bring the cotton forward, slip
1, knit 1, and pull the slipped stitch over it, knit 7,
knit 2 taken together, bring the cotton forward, and
repeat from the border : your number of stitches
should always be the same. Back row, knit the
border stitches, and rib the rest ; every back row is
the same. Knit to where you decreased last, bring
the cotton forward, slip 1 stitch, knit 1, and pull the
slipped stitch over it, knit 5 stitches, decrease by
taking 2 stitches in 1, bring the cotton forward, knit
3, repeat the last 12 stitches to the border. Back
row. You are to continue increasing and decreas-
ing in the same manner until you have only 3 stitch-
es between the increases, then decrease at the sides
of the diamond, which you have made by increas-
ing, and increase on each side before and after the
decrease. You will now have enough of the pat-
tern done to see how to proceed.
Observe, that when you have only 3 stitches at
the top of the diamond, you have been decreasing,
and the back row is done, you begin to decrease the
192 KNITTING, NETTING,
other diamond. Also, that after the 1st diamond is
done, your greatest number of plain stitches between
the decrease will be 5.
BORDER FOR A TABLE COVER.
Cast on 90 stitches. Knit the 1st stitch, bring
the thread forward, slip a stitch, knit 2 taken to-
gether, bring the thread forward, slip a stitch, &c
to the end of the row, where you will find but one
stitch to knit after the last slipped stitch. Continue
the pattern (observing to begin every row w T ith one
plain knitted stitch) until you have enough in length,
then cast off.
This border, in crimson cotton or German lambs' -
wool, is a nice finish to a dark cloth cover.
BORDER AND FRINGE.
In 2 colors; for a Table Cover or Shawl.
Cast on 28 stitches with the first color. Knit 2
stitches with the 2nd color, knit 2 stitches with the
1st color, 2 with the 2nd, 2 with the 1st, and con-
tinue the same to the end of the row, which will be
2 stitches of the 1st color. Begin the next row by
knitting 2 stitches of the 1st color, pass the thread
forward, place it under the thumb of the left hand,
pass the 2nd color back and knit 2 stitches, continue
the same to the end of the row, and then begin
AND CROTCHET WORK. 193
again at the 2nd row, only observing to knit the 2nd
color over the 1st and the 1st over the 2nd. After
2 more rows, reverse the colors again.
When you have a sufficient length, cast off 20
stitches and unravel 8 for the fringe.
Two ivory needles and rather fine lambs'-wool are
Cast on 44 stitches, knit 7 rows, then knit 2
inches, knitting and ribbing 2 stitches alternately ;
knit 8 rows, continue plain knitting and increase at
the beginning and ending of every 4th row ; when
you have 60 stitches knit 4 rows, then decrease in
the same proportion as you increased, until you have
but 52 stitches ; knit 6 rows, and finish to match
the top. Sew them up.
Cast 2 stitches on each of 4 needles, knit round
increasing them to 4, next round increase 1 on each
needle and make seams of the centre stitches. Knit
round increasing 1 stitch on each side of the seam
(leaving 3 stitches between the 2 that are increased)
on each needle. When your cap is large enough
round, leave off seaming, and knit round until the
194 KNITTING, NETTING,
cap is three-fourths of a yard long : make the end
like the beginning.
Cast on each of 3 needles 18 or 24 stitches, ac-
cording to the size of the sleeve wished for ; knit
and rib 3 stitches alternately until the sleeve is
about 3 inches long. Then take coarser needles
and coarser lambs'-wool, and knit plain until the
sleeve is nearly long enough, and finish by ribbing
it again for about an inch and a half.
baby's lambs'-wool cap.
Cast on 60 stitches. Knit 3 or 4 rows plain.
Knit about 20 turns in double knitting; this will
make it 14 inches in length and 7 inches in depth.
Knit 12 turns plain and 10 turns double knitting.
Knit 2 or 3 turns plain knitting, reducing the num-
ber of stitches so as to form the crown. Fasten it
up a little way behind, turn back the first part ot
double knitting, and run a ribbon through it.
BRIOCHE OR MOORISH CUSHION.
Choose any number of colored wools, or if j)re-
ferred, two that contrast well. Two needles
Cast on 60 stitches, bring the wool forward, slip
a stitch, knit 1 (by this you increase by a loop)
AND CROTCHET WORK. 195
stitch), bring the wool forward, slip a stitch, knit
1 ; repeat these stitches to the end of the row. 2nd
row: bring the wool forward, slip a stitch, knit the
loop made last row with the next stitch, bring the
wool forward, slip a stitch, knit the loop and stitch
together ; repeat these stitches to the end of the
row. Knit 6 more rows in the same manner, the
stitch is the same throughout. Fasten on the 2nd
color, bring the wool forward, slip a stitch, knit 1,
bring the wool forward, slip a stitch, knit 1. Now
instead of continuing the row 7 , turn back. Bring
the wool forward, slip a stitch, knit 1, bring the
wool forward, slip a stitch, knit 1. Continue to
increase the number you slip and knit by 4 every
time, until all the 60 have been knitted. Knit 8
rows of the 1st color, and proceed as before.
Twelve of these divisions will make the cushion
large enough. The following succession of colors
w r ith dark stripes between, is very pretty j green,
lilac, yellow, blue, white, and scarlet.
Sew it up at the side. Net a fringe with double
coarse lambs'-wool to the narrow part, and run in
a string to tie it tightly together under the fringe.
Make a round cushion, and cover it w T ith the knit-
SINGLE CROTCHET STITCH.
Shades of German wool are the prettiest.
With a good-sized ivory crotchet-needle, make a
chain of 50 loops, place the first stitch behind the
last, pass your needle through it, put your wool
196 KNITTING, NETTING,
round your needle and pull it through both stitches :
this will join the two ends together, then pass your
needle through the next stitch, catch the wool on
your needle, pull it through the stitch and through
the loop on your needle ; continue the same round
and round, varying the shades, until your muffatee
is two inches deep, then begin the following pat-
tern : —
The only difference between this stitch and the
previous one is, that instead of passing your needle
through the upper edge or side of the stitch, you
pass it through the under one. This is the stitch
generally used for mittens, baby's shoes, gaiters,
Finish your muffatee with an equal depth of the
The beauty of crotchet work depends on its being
done evenly, and the loops not drawn too tight.
DOUBLE CROTCHET STITCH.
Begin as in single crotchet ; when you have pulled
the silk or wool through the foundation stitch, keep
it on your needle so as to have two stitches, catch
the silk at the back (without passing your needle
through any loop or stitch), and pull the silk
through both the stitches on your needle ; by this,
you do two rounds at once.
This stitch is very pretty for bags : the founda-
tion should be a chain of from 80 to 120 stitches.
AND CROTCHET WORK. 19?
PLAIN DOUBLE CROTCHET STITCH PURSE.
Begin with a chain of 8 loops; crotchet round,
:ncreasing 1 stitch by making a chain stitch after
each stitch; crotchet 1 round without increasing;
continue to increase 8 stitches in every other round
until you have 80 or 100 stitches according to the
size of the netting silk ; no further increase will be
If the purse is intended to be a long one, when
you come to the opening you must crotchet back-
wards and forwards in rows instead of rounds. To
avoid losing 1 stitch in every row, you must make
a chain stitch before beginning the row.
The opposite end may be finished either square
or round ; if square, it should have a fringe ; if
round, you must decrease (which is done by miss-
ing a loop) in the same proportion as you increased.
OPEN CROTCHET PURSE.
A steel needle and middling-sized silk are required.
Make a chain of 8 stitches, and crotchet round,
making a chain stitch after each stitch, until you
have 32 stitches ; crochet 1 round without increase,
then begin the open pattern as follows : Make 3
chain stitches, pass the needle through the next
stitch of the foundation, crotchet it in double crotchet
stitch; repeat this all round. In the future rounds
make 5 chain stitches, and pass the needle through
the centre stitch of the festoon.
198 KNITTING, NETTING,
Double crotchet stitch.
This cap may be made either with German lambs 1 -
wool or 3-ply fleecy. A coarse ivory crotchet
needle is required ; the colors may be varied at
the pleasure of the worker ; for brevity 1 s sake
only three are named : viz. dark brown, scarlet,
and light green.
Make a chain, rather longer than the circumfer-
ence of the cap required, with brown wool, join the
ends together as directed in double crotchet, stitch
and crotchet 3 rounds.
Prepare for working with the scarlet wool by
fastening it on a few stitches before you want to
use it in the following manner : — Place the woo]
along the first ringer of the left hand, crotchet one
brown stitch, passing the needle over the scarlet
wool, in the next stitch pass it under, and proceed
in this manner until you want it ; then keep the
brown out of sight in a similar way. Whenever
you work with more than one color, this must be
strictly attended to, or the color you are not using
will hang in loops at the back of your work.
Crotchet 3 brown and 2 scarlet stitches alternale
ly for 3 rounds. Crochet 3 rounds of brown : fas-
ten on the scarlet again for another stripe and make
the spots green. Continue thus to vary the color.!
until the cap is about 6 inches long; then begin t^
decrease for the top of the cap by passing the nee-
dle through 2 stitches at once after every 6 stitches
for one round : then after every 5 stitches ; and so
AND CROTCHET WORK. 199
on until you have very few stitches left. Fasten off
with a cross stitch needle and sew on a tassel.
Crotchet work may be done from any Berlin pat-
tern. Pines are particularly pretty ; and clouded
wools and silks work in very nicely
SHOE AND STOCKING SOCKS.
For holes, set up sixty-six stitches, (for the figure
below 65). The ancles 36 rows deep (either ribbed
like a stocking, or with the figure below), of which
5 rows of holes, 2 plain rows being between each
row of holes. After the ancle commence 2 stripes
of the figure for the instep, leaving the rest of the
stitches on the other needle, without working.
Work the instep the length of 9 complete figures,
then leave that needle, and work the back of the
sock with zephyr worsted, making 12 stitches at
each end of the needle, for the straps. First 2
plain rows the whole breadth, then 2 rows inverted,
then two plain rows, then a row of holes, then 2
plain rows, then 2 inverted, taking off 12 stitches at
each end for the straps by slipping and binding.
Then make the heel by 4 plain rows and 2 inverted
alternately till the fourth plain stripe, when there
should be 37 stitches ; at the first row of the stripe
narrow 3 stitches each side of the centre stitch, then
three more plain rows, then an inverted stripe, then
narrow 2 stitches each side of the centre stitch,
then 3 more plain rows, then put the stitches on 2
needles and slip and bind them together for the heel.
Then take 50 stitches (or more) along the heel for
200 KNITTING, NETTING,
the sole, then 2 plain rows, then narrow 1 stitch
each side, and afterwards narrow every other row
till each side 30 stitches remain. The first plain
stripe 6 rows, all the others 4, and 2 inverted be-
tween each. After the fourth inverted stripe com-
mence knitting plain rows from the instep for the
toe, knitting all around plain and inverted stripes
alternately, till the first row of the fourth plain stripe
of the toe, then at that first row narrow 1 every
seventh stitch. At the next first row of the plain
stripe, narrow 1 every sixth stitch — in the next
every fifth — so on, 1 less each time, till there are
5 inverted stripes, then narrow every other row, at 1
stitch less between each time, till only 16 stitches
remain, then divide on two needles, and slip and
bind them together, finishing the sock. And sew
up the sock each side on the wrong side.
1st row — seam 2 stitches, slip one and bind, make
7 stitches, narrow 1.
2nd row — seam 2, knit 14, narrow 1.
3rd row — seam 2, slip and bind, knit 11, narrow 1.
4th row — seam 2, slip and bind, knit 9, narrow 1.
Then commence again the same.
ANOTHER TOP OF SOCKS.
Knit 3 stitches, make 1, knit 1, narrow, knit 1,
make 1, knit 1, narrow, knit 1, make 1, knit 1,
narrow, knit 1, make 1, knit 1, narrow, knit 1,
make 1, knit 1, narrow.
AND CROTCHET WORK. 201
SOCKS WITHOUT SHOE AND STOCKING.
Set up 60 stitches.
6 white rows increasing 1 stitch on the right side
forming at the sixth white row 63 stitches. The
beginning at the toe 1 red stitch, 5 white, 3 red, 3
white, 4 red, 2 white, 5 red, 1 white, making the
first red stitch straight down. Then 4 rows of
plain red w T orking right on both the right and wrong
side and narrowing 1 stitch on each wrong side.
Then four white the same. Then again 4 red the
same. Then plain white row, without narrowing
and on wrong side as if on right. Then the holes
without narrowing. White one row taking 2
stitches and passing the third in front, then plain
row on the right side, then another row of holes the
same as above. Then one row plain red on the
right side. Then a row plain red on the wrong as
if on the right side, taking up a stitch in the middle
of the red and knitting it at the toe. Then a plain
row of red on the right side. Then on the wrong
side as if on the right 26 stitches on 1 needle, then
leave it at the heel side and with third needle the rest,
and take up a row at the toe a second stitch red close
on the white. Then a plain row white on the right
side, then back again to the toe on the wrong side
as if on the right, and take up third stitch white at
the w T hite close to the red nearest to the needle.
Then another plain row w 7 hite on the right side, then
back again to the toe on the wrong side as if on the
right and take up a stitch white next to the red row
furthest from the needle. Then a plain row on the
202 KNITTING, NETTING,
right side, then back again on wrong as if on right
side and take up a stitch red next to white. Then
another plain row, then back again as if on right
side, and take up another red stitch. Then a row
on the right side 5 red 1 white. Then on the wrong
side 4 red 2 white. Then a row 3 red and 3 white.
Then a row on red 5 white. Then 4 rows white right
and wrong alternately. Then 4 rows on the right
and wrong sides as if on the right. Then on the
right side 1 row plain. Then a row of holes on the
wrong side. Then 4 rows on right and wrong sides
as if on the right. Then 4 rows right and wrong
alternately. Then a row 1 stitch red 5 white be-
ginning at the toe. Then 3 white, 3 red, then 4
red, 2 white, then 1 white and 5 red. Then 4 red
rows right and wrong as if on the right side, second
and fourth rows narrowing at the toe. Then 4 rows
white exactly the same. Then on the right side
from the toe 1 row, red increasing at the heel 26
stitches. Then on the wrong side knit as if on the
right and narrow at the toe. Then 2 rows as if on
the right side and narrow at the toe. Then on the
right 1 plain white row. Then holes on the wrong
side, then a plain row on the right side, then a row of
holes on the wrong side, then red on the right side,
then on the wrong as if on the right and taking up
a stitch at the toe in the middle of the red, then red
on the right side, then on wrong as if right taking 1
up a stitch. The same with white, second row taking
up a stitch on white close to the red, and fourth take
up 1 white close to the other red, then red as before
and taking up red stitch just under beginning o*
points. Then 5 red 1 white, then 4 red, 2 white,
AND CROTCHET WORK. 203
then 3 red, 3 white, 1 red, 5 white, then six plain
rows white taking up at the heel one stitch each
time Then slip and bind. Then for the ancle
take up all the stitches on a line with those on the
needle, put them all on 1 needle, making in all 72
stitches. Then work two plain rows white. Then
on the right side as if on the wrong; 1 row, then on
the wrong as if on the right 1 row. Then 2 plain
rows. Then on the right as if on the wrong, then on
the wrong as if on the right. Then on the right side a
row of holes. Then on the wrong side as if on the
right, then on the right as if on the wrong. Then 3
plain rows, then on the right as if on the wrong,
then on the wrong as if on the right. Then on the
right side begin holes 2 plain stitches, 3 holes, then
go back plain on the wrong, and so on till ten rows
of holes, then a plain row. Then red on the wrong
side as if on the right, then on the right as if on the
wrong, then a double row of holes as in the foot.
Then slip and bind. Then slip and bind the 2 sides
of the sole together. Then sew up the back and
MITTS WITH THE FIGURE ON THE BACK OF THE HANI),
AND HOLES INSIDE AND IN THE THUMB.
Left Hand. Set up 72 stitches (or for a very
small hand 66). 3 plain and 3 seam stitches for
the wrist about 30 deep. In the thumb, first 3 in-
creasing rows every other row, then every fifth, (that
is 4 rows alike) till widened 25 rows. Take off 27
including seams. Make 11 stitches afterwards
204 KNITTING; NETTING,
Then next row plain. Narrow twice, a plain row
between. First row of holes in the hand after 1
plain row. First hole in the thumb at the plain row
after the thumb is widened 5 stitches. Then 3
plain rows between each row of the holes. On the
left hand 1 plain stitch between thumb and begin-
ning of figure on the back of the hand.
On the Right Hand corresponding stitch. After
taking up thumb stitches, narrow thumb every time
till 28 stitches remain. Length of thumb about 22
rows of holes. Length of mitt from the thumb to
the end 12 rows of holes.
Set up 80 stitches. Between seams on the backs
9 stitches and 8 stitches, and 2 stitches for each seam
except the seams for thumb. The rest as above ex-
cept narrow thumb every other row and till 30
A PAIR OF GLOVES LARGE MEN'S SIZE .
Purse Silk — 21 Skeins.
Left Hand. Set up 104 stitches. The wrist
with the figure as above. Depth of wrist, 8 com-
plete figures. Width the same. Afterwards 1 plain
row. Then 4 plain stitches, 1 inverted, widen 1,
another inverted (for thumb), 14 plain, 2 inverted
for seam stitches, 11 plain, 2 inverted, 10 plain, 2
AND CROTCHET WORK. 205
inverted, 12 plain, 2 inverted. Then plain till back
again to the thumb. The first 6 increasing rows of
the thumb every other row. Then increase only
every fifth row till thumb increased 37 stitches wide.
(The increasing made by making a stitch through
the stitch next to the 2 inverted ones, widening be-
tween the 2 inverted ones ; though the first in-
creasing is by making a stitch of the loop each side
of the plain stitch which is at the commencement
of the thumb between the two inverted.) Then
take off on a thread the 37 stitches with the 2 in-
verted, instead of increasing again. When the thumb
is 29 wide, knit the 4 stitches before the inverted
and take the 39 off on a thread which tie. Then
make 13 stitches next to the 4, then knit 4 more
stitches on that needle. Then continue the round
as before. Then knit another row. Then knit
the 4 stitches before the thumb, then narrow 1 stitch,
then knit the other stitches, narrow the one before
the 4 after the thumb. Continue the row. Next
row without narrowing. The next row narrow as
before. Then about 23 rows without narrowing.
Then for the little finger, after knitting the 2 inverted
before the last seam take off 26 stitches on a thread
(there being 12 each side of the last 2 inverted)
then make 13 stitches, put 2 stitches on that needle,
continue the row and leave off inverting there.
Make 1 row plain. Then the first of the 13, and at
the last of the narrow 13. The next row without
narrowing. The next row narrow as before. Then
2 plain rows. Then after making second seam take
off 31 stitches on a thread and make 13 stitches.
1 row plain. The next narrow between the fingers.
206 KNITTING, NETTING,
Then plain row. Then narrow again. Next row
plain. Then after the half of first seam take off 33
stitches (one of which being one of the inverted
stitches). Then make 13. 1 row plain. Then at
the 13 narrow as before. Then 1 row plain, then
narrow again, then plain and so on till the finger is
only 39 stitches, which divide equally on three nee-
dles. Then knit till nearly right length. Then at
the second stitch of each needle narrow every other
row till 8 stitches remain on each needle. Then
narrow every row till 3 stitches on each needle, then
finish it off by sewing them together, running the
silk through each loop. Then the thumb — Take
the stitches off the thread, and of those between the
finger and thumb take up 18. Then begin to knit
at back seam, put 2 stitches on needle after each
seam — 2 rows plain — then narrow between the fin-
gers next to the 2 stitches each side of the needle —
next row plain — next narrow and so on till 42 stitches
remain. When of right length finish off as before.
For the other fingers — 1 plain row, then narrow be-
tween the fingers in the same way ; making second
finger 38 stitches wide. Third finger 36 wide, and
little finger 33 stitches wide.
For the Right Hand. The same, except after
the wrist, commence the seam at the side of the
hand first instead of those for the thumb, which will
make it thus : after the 4 plain stitches, 2 inverted,
then 12 plain, then 2 inverted, then 10 plain, 2 in-
verted, then 11 plain, then 2 inverted, then 14 plain,
then 1 inverted, then widen 1, 1 plain, widen an-
other, 1 inverted to form the thumb. Then plain
till the side seam again, and so on.
AND CROTCHET WORK 207
N. B. Do not forget to continue the side seam
all through the little fingers.
After setting up, knit first 6 stitches with both
ends of silk. For smaller hand set up 9 1 stitches.